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Cells

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by

Milla Anderson

on 14 August 2013

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Transcript of Cells

Eukaryotic
Animal Cell

Cells
Endocsymbiosis
Eukaryotic
Plant Cell

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
DNA
concentration of non membrane bound chromosomes
chromosomes
uses directions from DNA to synthesize proteins
semifluid substance within membrane
provides cell instructions
Bacteria & Archea
jelly-like outer coating
rigid structure maintaining cell shape
carry genetic information
membrane enclosing cytoplasm
attachments on the capsule of the cell
long extenstion that
propells the cell
contains most of the DNA
for eukaryotic cells

Nuclear Envelope
double membrane enclosing nucleus
Pore
regulates materials that enter and exist the nucleus, such as proteins
Chromatin
material containing DNA and proteins
Nucleolus
involved in synthesis of ribosome
embedded with ribosome
produces proteins from bound ribosome & then secretes them
functions in synthesizing lipids, metabolizing carbohydrates, & detoxification of drugs
not embedded with ribosome
non-membrane organelle
organelle that makes proteins
Bound Ribosome
Free Ribosome
organelle that modifies, stores, sorts, and ships the products of the ER
recieves products from the ER in vesicles
Vesicle
contains proteins from the ER
no nucleus
no membrane-bound organelles
small in size

contain a nucleus
membrane-bound organelles
larger in size

chromosomes
plasma membrane

cytosol
riosome

Both:
Prokaryotic Cell
Characteristics of a Prokaryotic Cell
has no nucleus
has no membrane bound organelles
small in size

ER Lumen
internal compartment between membrane foldings
ribosome attached to ER or nucleus
ribosome freely floating within cytosol
cis face
side where vesicles from the ER enter the golgi
cisternae
stack of flat membrane sacs with internal space
as vesicles progress through the cisternae, the enzymes inside them modify the proteins
trans face
modified proteins exit through trans face
transport vesicle
modified proteins exit golgi in a transport vesicle and are shipped to specific organelles or outside the cell
transport vesicle delivering modified protein to another area of the cell
membrane that encloses the cell
site for cellular respiration
process that generates ATP (energy) from sugars through the use of oxygen
cristae
internal folds of the membrane
embedded with proteins

organelle that contains enzymes to change hydrogen to oxygen
creates hydrogen peroxiside (H202) as a by products
thickest of cytoskeleton structures

composed of 13columns of tubulin

straight hollow rods that support shape

aid in cell mobility (in cilia & flagella)

guides organelle movements

aids in cell division
s
ff
composed of fibrous proteins coiled into thick cables
specialized to bear tension
NEVER reassemble or lose shape
reinforce cell shape
anchor organelles in place (nucleus)
thinnest of cytoskeleton structures

2 intertwined strands of actin
(each a polymer of actin subunits)

made to bear tension

form structure inside plasma membrane, changing cell shape

aid in cytoplasmic streaming & cell mobility
provides structure for cell
aids in cell mobility
components made of proteins
long organelle that aids in cell movement
moves in a wave like motion
composed of membrane & microtubules
9 + 2 arrangement
arrangement in flagella & cilia
consists of 9sets of microtubule doublets circling 2 microtubules
membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes (work at pH 5)
digest macromolecules
found in centrosome (microtubule organizing center)
pair of 9 sets of microtubule triplets arranged in a ring
aid in organizing microtubules
Characteristics of a Eukaryotic Cell
larger than prokaryotic cells
contains a nucleus
contains membrane bound organelles
Characteristics of an Animal Cell
a eukaryotic cell
may have flagellum or cilia, lysosome, or centriole
Organelles Similar to Animal Cells:
Nucleus
ER (Rough & Smooth)
Ribosome
Golgi Apparatus
Plasma Membrane
Cytoplasm
Mitochondria
Perioxisome
Cytoskeleton
Centrosome
Organelles Similar to Prokaryotic Cell
Chromosomes
Ribosome
Plasma Membrane
Cytosol (Cytoplasm)
Organelles Specific to Plant Cells Only:
Produce glucose from sunlight, CO2, and H2O
Serves as storage, waste removal, and breaks down macromolecules in the cell
Tonoplast
Membrane that encloses the central vacuole
Plays a major role in growth of a cell
protects the plant
disposal site
contains pigments that color the cell
The hard outer covering of a plant cell
Protects cell & maintains shape
Channels located in the cell walls that connect the chemical environments of adjacent cells
Theory on How the Eukaryotic Cell Developed
began as a simple prokaryotic cell
developed complexer membrane structures
cell was capable of engulfing bacteria
engulfed mitochondria and chlorolasts bacteria
mitochondria and chloroplats became part of cell structure
Full transcript