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APWH- Post Classical Asia
Transcript of APWH- Post Classical Asia
Sui Dynasty (589-618)- reunification after Han dynasty collapse, canal systems built to link N and S regions economically
Tang (618-907) and Song (960-1279) Dynasties- known as "Golden Age" of Chinese achievement
revival of merit examinations in govt
focus on education b/c of ability to print books
pop. explosion (thanks to champa rice from Vietnam)
economic boom (iron production, switch to paper $, improved transportation)
Reciprocal relationship between China and neighboring states (Korea, Vietnam, Japan)- access to Chinese trade and military protection, in exchange for payment and submission
Rise of the Mongols
Pastoral nomads with superb horsemanship and archery skills
Genghis Khan united Mongols tribes and began expansion into settled regions (particularly China due to wealth)
Used brutal methods of conquest
Women in China
Economic growth and
Neo-Confucianism led to worsening status of women
Footbinding: popular practice in upper classes, emphasized frailty of women and kept them subservient and dependent on men
Influence on Japan
Japan's isolation protected them from Chinese conquest or threat, cultural borrowing was more voluntary and deliberate than Korea or Vietnam
Evidence of assimilation: cities modeled after Chinese capital,
similar writing systems, influence of Zen Buddhism on code of Bushido
Evidence of distinction: emphasis on military service and loyalty vs. intellectual achievements, pol power w/ shogun instead of bureaucracy, Zen Buddhism merged w/ Shinotism, more rights for women,
Post Classical Asia
Buddhism spread starting w/ fall of Han dynasty due to strong social appeal, seen as dangerous and barbaric to govt leaders and upper class
During Song dynasty, Neo-Confucianism emerged among scholar-gentry class (revival of old school Conf values w/ Buddhist influence)
led to renewed emphasis on rank, obligations, and cultural purity
one must learn to achieve virtue and enlightenment
hostile to outside influence (ie- traditional Buddhism)
Korea and Vietnam
Korea: Han control of N Korea led to spread of Buddhism, but Tang/Song rulers est. more of a tributary relationship w/ independent Korea following military resistance, Confucian schools led to more cultural borrowing (ie- written language, increasing patriarchy)
Vietnam: more resistance to Chinese, so influence took longer and required more force; eventually Confucianism took hold, schools were built, Chinese culture spread among the elite, trade was established, but Vietnam still maintained more independence than Korea
moveable type (block printing)
luxury goods (porcelain, silk)
Buddhist cave shrines like this are evidence of Buddhism's survival in China despite attacks during the Song dynasty. It also shows syncretism, as Buddhism blended with Chinese artistic styles.
Mongols would catapult dead and disease-infected bodies into the walls of cities they attacked.
When approaching cities with moats, they would build bridges out of dead bodies.
Mongols played with the heads (pun intended) of those they conquered with piles like this.
Mongols unified after Song collapse, established Yuan dynasty under Mandate of Heaven
used administrative system to rule, since they didn't know how to rule a complex agrarian society
accommodated Chinese culture in some ways (ex- built Daoist temples)
Mongols did not become Chinese, though (ex- did not adopt footbinding or the examination system, or learn Chinese, no intermarriage)
Mongols sacked Baghdad in 1258, ending the successful Abbasid caliphate
Much more abrupt takeover than in China
Many Mongols converted to Islam, so they were not driven out at the end of their rule, just assimilated into Persian society
"Khanate of the Golden Horde"- high taxation, tolerant of Orthodox Christianity
Conquered Russia but did not occupy (no economic incentive), so it would lag behind Europe and Asia and remain "backwards" in the future
Global Impact of Mongol Rule
"Pax Mongolica" (Mongol Peace) secured trade routes and facilitated movement of religions, technology, diseases
examples- gunpowder, Black Plague, printing
Diffusion of these innovations to the West allowed for growth after Dark Ages, laid roots for Europe's rise to dominance
When land routes are disrupted by resurgence of Muslim empires later on, Europeans will have to find another way to maintain trade with Asia --> motives for exploration
Black Death kills 1/3 of Europe's pop, disrupts feudalism, leads to the Renaissance (rebirth of Europe)