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Cell Divison

The events of cell division and mitosis and meiosis.

Aja Durham

on 24 September 2012

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Transcript of Cell Divison

Cell Division By: Aja Durham & Dakota Hamilton DNA Replication - DNA Replication Process:
The function of cell division is to produce more cells for growth and repair processes. Mitosis -Mitosis Function:
Division of the nucleus. Stages of Mitosis When cell division begins the chromatin threads coil and shorten so that the chromosomes are then visible.
Chromatid (chromosomes made up of two strands) are held together by centromere.
The centrioles separate and move towards opposite sides of the cell creating the mitotic spindle (composed of thin microtubules).
At the end of prophase, the nuclear envelope and the nucleoli would have broken down and disappeared, and the chromosomes have become attached randomly to the spindle fibers by their centromeres. During interphase, which is the longest stage of the cell cycle, the cell is very active and is resting only from division. Prophase Interphase/Metabolic Phase The chromosomes cluster and become aligned at the center of the spindle in the middle between the centrioles so that a straight line of chromosomes are visible. Metaphase During anaphase the centromeres holding the chromatids split and start moving slowly apart toward opposite ends of the cell.
Anaphase is over when chromosomes stop moving. Anaphase Telophase Telophase is almost the same thing as prophase except in reverse.
The chromosomes begin to uncoil and and become threadlike chromatin again.
The spindle breaks down and begins to disappear, then a nuclear envelope begins to form around each chromatin mass, and nucleoli appear in each of the daughter nucleoli. -What is the importance of mitotic cell division?
Mitotic cell division is important because it creates an exact copy of the original mother cell with the exact genetic information from the original fertilized egg from which it came. Mitotic Cell Division? DNA also serves as a blueprint to protein synthesis.
Proteins are key substances for all aspects for cell life.
A gene is a DNA segment that carries the information for building one protein or polypeptide chain. DNA in Protein Synthesis -RNA ( ribonucleic acid)
RNA functions as the decoder and messenger for specifying the structure of proteins to be built at the ribosomes.
-Transfer RNA (tRNA):
small cloverleaf-shaped molecules that ferry amino acids to the ribosomes.
-Ribosomal RNA (rRNA):
helps form the ribosomes, wher proteins are built.
-Messenger RNA (mRNA):
long, single nucleotide strands that resemble half of a DNA molecule and carry the "message" containing instructions for protein synthesis from the DNA gene in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Varieties of RNA Prophase Comparing Cell Types Epithelial Skeletal muscle and smooth muscle cells Fat cell Erythrocytes Macrophage Fibroblasts Nerve cell
(neuron) Oocyte
(female) Sperm
(male) Cells that
connect body
parts Cells that cover
and line body
organs Cells that move
organs and body
parts Cell that
nutrients Cell that fights
disease Cell that
and controls
body functions Cells of
reproduction Cell types Shape &
Appearance Special
Functions Internal
Structure Secretes cable-
like fibers.
rough e.r and
large golgi
makes proteins carries oxygen
in the blood-
shape helps
for easy flow.
shape provides
extra surface area hexagonal
filaments that
resist tearing
when rubbed or
pulled spherical
shape is
produced by a
large lipid
droplet in its
cytoplasm. (Phagocytic cell) extends long false feet
called pdeudopods.
the lysosomes digest
the infectious
microorganisms they take
up. extensive
plentiful rough
ER is present
to synthesize
components. largest cell
in female body.
egg contains
many copies of
daughter cells
distributed arise
when the
fertilized egg splits
into an embryo. long and
built for
flaggum acts as
a motile whip
to propel
the sperm. elongated and filled with
abundant contractile
can shorten forcefully
and move the bones or
change the size of the
internal organs.
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