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Al-Andalus

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by

Juan Gabriel Márquez Sotos

on 25 April 2015

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Transcript of Al-Andalus

Al-Andalus
In the year 711 the muslims defeated visigoths, conquered the Iberian Peninsula and Balears Islands in a very short time.
Starts a new historical period characterized by:
3 cultures: christians, islam and jewish share the same territory.
Between 711 and 1492 the Peninsula is divided into:
Islam territories in the south
Christian territories in the north
History of Al-Andalus
In the year 711 the muslims armies enter by the south of the Iberian Peninsula and defeated the visigoth king Roderick at the battle of Guadalete. In 4 years they occupy the biggest part of territories called Al-Andalus.
Al-Andalus was governed by an emir that depends on caliphate of Damascus. Cordoba was its capital.
Caliphate of Cordoba
771-1031
In the 912 inherited the throne Abd-al-Rahman III, naming Caliph in the 929, already not relied on Damascus.
In the Caliphate of Cordoba.
It was the time more important and brilliant history of Al - andalus.
Great monuments were built in this time.
The Government was formed by:
-the Caliph maximum authority.

-The hayib or Prime Minister.

-The viziers more or less as a Minister.

-The valies led the provinces.
This disunity weakened Al - Andalus and increased attacks by the Christian kingdoms.The Muslims asked for help to the ALMORAVIDS.
In 1147 the Almohads replaced the Almoravids in power until 1232. Seville becomes the capital of Al - Andalus.
In the year 1212 took place the battle of the Navas de Tolosa, where the Almohads were defeated. After this battle the Christians conquered almost all Al - Andalus.
The taifas kingdoms
In the year 1031, the Caliphate of Córdoba was divided into many kingdoms or TAIFAS. The most important were Seville Toledo and Zaragoza
They halted the Christian advance and returned to unify-Andalus.
It was the last Muslim territory of the Iberian Peninsula. It occupy what today is the province of Malaga, Almeria, Granada and part East of Cadiz.
It was ruled by the family Nazari.
This KIngdom was very weak, vassal of Castile Kingdom. It was conquered by the Catholic Monarchs in 1492.
The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
Most of the population was dedicated to the agriculture. The crops most important were: cereals, vines and olive trees. They introduced two major advances: irrigation technique: wells and irrigation channels, and new crops: cotton, artichokes, etc... In handicraft produced pottery, leather, arms. dyes and silk.
The most important group: Conquerors and their descendants, Berbers and Arabs.
Were walled and had several gates which were closed at night.
Al - Andalus architecture has the following characteristics:
The Andalusian legacy stays in our culture today, in our homes, food, agriculture and in our language (are believed to be about 4000 words of Arabic origin)
Very active trade, its products were sold by other regions of the world and to change brought slaves and gold.
They used two coins:
the gold dinar and silver dirham .
The main gate was the Medina or old town.
In this part was the great mosque or Aljama.
The streets were narrow and irregular, around the Medina were the suburbs (neighborhoods) where were the craftsmen workshops.
In the most high part of the city was the fortress where they lived, authorities and officials.
The social and economic life were in the Souk or market.
Built with poor and little durable materials (plaster, bricks, tiles).
Used an abundant decoration, giving appearance of wealth, geometric and vegetal motifs.
They tried to create fresh and pleasant environments, that the water was always present in fountains, pools, etc.
They used columns and pillars and arches, on all the Horseshoe.
The buildings were covered with flat roofs and wood, and sometimes with domes.
Arabs: They had the best land, with charges in govenment.
Berbers: They were more, but they had fewer privileges sometimes rebelled.
The muslims were tolerant towards Jews and Christians. It was a society made up of people with different costoms and religious.
Toledo:The city of the three cultures:Jews, Christians and Muslims.
Muladies: They were former christians adopting religion, language and costoms of islam. With this, they avoided paying taxes.
Mozarabs: They were Christians practicing their religion: they were not Muslims, so they had to pay taxes. Many of them emigrated to the northern Kingdoms to escape persecution.
Jews: They were very important in economy (producers). Jewish districts were in a separate part of the city, like Toledo, Granada, Zaragoza.
The economy of Al-Andalus
Organized according to religious criteria:
The society of Al-Andalus
The cities of Al-Andalus
The architecture
The legacy of Al-Andalus
Calligraphy.
Vegetable motifs.
Geometric motifs.
Fountain in the courtyard of the Lions.
Work by:
Juan Gabriel Márquez Sotos
Elena Quintana López
Andrea Piña Alarcón
Camila Tercero Abad
Marta Morales Rodríguez.
Full transcript