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Music History

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by

Jen Eklund

on 2 November 2015

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Transcript of Music History

The Renaissance
Music History
in 4 minutes: Start your timers
Music History
To understand music we must know how it began.
Classical Period
Baroque

Middle Ages
Romantic Period
* 500 - 1475
* Roman Empire had collapsed
* Music changed drastically
* Oriented towards God
The Church

* The church set the rules for
everything :art, architecture, music
* Composers had to write for the
8 church services
* What they wrote belonged to
the church

Plainchant
* unaccompanied, monophonic,
without a fixed time
* Many different styles of
plainchant - the church decided
what was used



Secular Music
* Troubadours traveled around performing
songs to the villages
* No music was ever
written down
* Told stories they
had heard or seen


Growth in Music

* Chant changed with the intro to
polyphony (2 or more melodies at
once
* Then came the motet, two
separate lines of melody at the
same time.

* 1475 - 1600
* Changes in Europe
* Rediscovering ancient times Columbus, da Vinci,, Shakespeare
* Human begins, not God, have
become the measure in philosophy, science, art and religion
* Renaissance = rebirth
The Renaissance
* Chants were embellished with notes, had graceful rhythms, and were smoothed out
* Homophony – a harmonized plainchant to highlight the melody

The Mass
• Largest, most important piece of music to the church
• Composers weren't able to make living on their own so the wrote for the church
• Developed the Mass form which is still used today
Kyrie – a simple prayer
Gloria – a LONG hymn
Credo – A recital of Christian’s list of beliefs
Sanctus – another hymn
Angus Dei – another prayer

High Renaissance
* Around 1500
* New style: Harmony, various melody lines used at once
* Canon and a capella became popular


Late Renaissance
Four Masters of this style: Palestrina, Lassus, Victoria, and Bryd
* Polychoirs were used
* Started seeing the use of Major/minor scales


* 1600-1750
* Known for its inconsistency, the Baroque Period encompasses the use of basso continuo, degrees of ornamentation, self-expression, open forms, and the formation of counterpoint.
Baroque

* Modern Orchestra and opera were born
* Choral Music was not dominate
* Major and minor scales are being used in the writing
* Introduction of the first surround sound
Early Baroque

* Rhythm became more regular and defined
* Bar lines and meter were used for the FIRST TIME
* Music began to be constructed from the ground up
* Harmony was introduced
Opera

* Opera was the defining moment in the Baroque era
* Recitative - Recitation: almost like talking while singing. The words follow the rhythm
* Aria - Elaborate section of singing. More melodic, lots of runs
Instrumental Music

* Rise in instrumental music in the early baroque period
* dance
* virtuosity
* Vocal music
LATE Baroque

* 1700-1750
* Monarchs instead of the church decided what was heard and written
* They demanded musicians for the hunt, battles, parties, entertainment and Tafelmusik
* Operas were written to honor those to paid for them
LATE Baroque

* Composers thought of themselves as servants with masters to satisfy
* They would work for: the church, court, opera house
* they had to work at the whim of those patrons
LATE Baroque

* Music was written with a methodical quality
* They would write a melody and then repeat it and then write variations on it

LATE Baroque

* Music was often played with rhythms off the beat, but with a firm beat underneath
* Dynamics were rarely used, instead dynamics were used by articulations
* Melodies were complex with TONS of decorations - everyday folks couldn't peform the music at all

Instrumental Music
* With the invention of more instruments came the demand for instrumental music.
People had to be taught about the form and genres (when it starts, when to clap)
* Different styles of dance also became popular

Vocal Music

* Opera became SERIOUS which is why it was called Opera Seria
* The plots came from Ancient History, typically Ancient Greek Myths
* Oratorio was Church opera
* 1750-1820
* The classical period meant the return to simplicity
* They got rid of the Baroque styles over the top embellishments
* It was a time of enlightenment
* The pursuit of happiness was encouraged
Classical Period
* The PUBLIC concert was being introduced
* However, composers still needed a patron to be able to make a living

Classical Period
* Music started offering variety of forms to avoid boredom
* Music also look a more simple style
* People wanted to be able to sing the melody
* The Baroque style of rhythm was considered boring
* Instead the tempo and meter remained constant, but rhythms would vary - People wanted CONTRAST

Classical Period
* People wanted contrast in dynamics too. They wanted to hear louds and softs in pieces
* The orchestra began to really take shape


Classical Period
* Musical forms were simple and easily understood
* Symphonies, Sonatas, Minuets, Rondo, Concerto, String quartet, Opera Buffa,


* 1820-1910
* Thanks to Beethoven people realized music was an ART
* Music became more about emotions, how music moves people
* Now every town had a concert hall and music that once was only for a small party was being heard in the halls
Composers were now able to make a living without having a patron - Beethoven was the first
Romantic Period
* Romantic music was about expressing emotion
* They would do so with the melody, harmony, and musical form
* Instrumental music was used to tell stories, not just opera
* They started using rubato
* Melodies would build up to climaxes using irregular rhythm and phrasing making it sound spontaneous
Romantic Period
* Composers started to use CHROMATICS in their pieces
* Harmony was the greatest advancement during this time
* They would use new chord forms to create richer sounds
* The orchestra expanded to include more woodwinds and brass - looks the most like ours
* Composers experimented with form
Early Romantic Period
* Most brilliant composers were: Beethoven, Schumann, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Liszt, Berlioz, Wagner, and Verdi
* Many used the literature of the time as texts for their music
* We are introduced to the Leid, The song cycle, Character Piece (short piano piece), program music, program symphonies
* Operas changed to music dramas not just dramas with music added
*
Late Romantic Period
* There were many failed revolutions therefore a failure in the romantic ideas - a period of realism
* There is the introduction of the symphonic poem - large orchestral composition in one movement
* People were looking for freedom and national independence
* Nationalism was seeping into music
* They began to incorporate folk music into their pieces
* Yet there were composers who wanted to return to the past like Mahler wo wanted to return to early Romanticism
20th Century

* 1900-2000
* Industrialization had a huge impact
* Discoveries were being made faster and faster
* Music was moving away from logic
* There was experimentation with melody, harmony, tone color and rhythm
* Basically they told the Musical Rules to GO AWAY and NEVER COME BACK
20th Century

* Music suddenly had distortions and no clear melody - some audiences were annoyed
* New scales were introduced: pentatonic, whole-tone, octatonic, quarter tone scales
* Composers used 12 Tone rows as a way to write a piece of music
* Music became atonal
Impressionism

* It all began with Avant-Garde music (music that was ahead of its time)
* Then came the impressionists - they were concerned with rich melodies and harmonies, shades of sound - they were linked to the Romantics
* Folk music was still being used in compositions
* Abstract compositions were also being used - some causing riots when first performed
* Expressionism was also around: fragmented melody, dissonance and densely written
* Modernists were also composing - leaving much of the interpretation to the performer, or changing the instruments themselves
Late 20th Century

* We are introduced to many new styles of music stretching the boundaries of musical ideas
* We have new sounds being used: grunts, hisses, sitting on the pianos, plucking the strings, pops, more percussive items
* Electronic music was introduced
* Chance music - where some of the music happened by chance, by throwing a dice
* Symbols were being introduced as way of writing leaving it up to the performer to decide
* At the end of the 20th cent. music could be classified as confused, multicultural, and bizarre
Debussy: Prelude to the afternoon of a fawn
Fanfare for a Common Man
Crumb: Night of the Electric Insects
Ravel: Bolero
Schoenberg: Variations for Orchestra Op 31
Full transcript