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Europe: lessons from the history to understand the future (o
Transcript of Europe: lessons from the history to understand the future (o
A number of new European states, ex Ireland, Yugoslavia, Poland etc.
Ottoman Empire would soon finally fall to pieces and become what is now Turkey
Austrian-Hungarian Empire dissolved
Russian Empire in pieces as well after the revolution - Bolsheviks in power
A Historical Overview: Interwar Period
New states that chosen different paths:
1. Bolshevik revolution in Russia --> USSR
--> Spread of communism in Eastern Europe and spread of socialist ideas
2. Western “democracies”
3. Spanish Civil War
-->Fascist powers supporting Franco (1933-1974)
-->Lots of volunteers from the US, Britain, etc. supporting the Republican side
A Historical Overview: The Development of Totalitarian Regimes
A Historical Overview: Post World War II
Fall of totalitarian regimes in Germany and Italy (but still existed in Spain and Portugal)
Strengthening of Communism in the East
--> Democracy did not necessarily win
Decolonization and the final fall of the Empires
--> Increase of democracy in many countries
--> ex. final brake for equal votes, right to vote for women etc. via Constitutions
Modern constitutions- ex. in France (1946) and Germany (1949)
Formation of the United Nations - Human Rights
European Coal & Steel Community (Germany, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg 1951)
--> An attempt to finally ensure peace in Western Europe- beginning of European (economic and political) cooperation
A Historical Overview: Modern Times
The end of Soviet union and the creation of new states
Tension between European Union integration movement and the new wave of nationalism
Bolshevik revolution - Sovjet constitution
1922- Mussolini (came to power via a military coup*)
--> Ruled in agreement with the Constitution until 1925
--> Ex. Acerbo law (1923)
--> Was later democratically elected “dictator” for one year
1933- Hitler (came to power democratically)
--> Centralized the entire country
--> Ex.: Enabling Act
Portugal (Salazar 1932)
A Historical Overview: Europe Post World War I
New states, old countries weakened
The European development in the 20th century
1. The main steps
1952: The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
Signatory States: Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and Netherlands
Create a joint entity => promote the peace.
Immediate aim: reconciliation Franco-German (make the war impossible between these two States)
==> Founding act: Robert Schuman declaration in 1950 in Paris (inspired by Jean Monnet)
THE EURO AND THE SCHENGEN
Two Heavy weighing factors for the future of Europe
1957: The European Economic Community (EEC)
and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom)
Signatory States: Germany, France, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg and Netherland
→ => About Common Market and Nuclear
1986: The Single European Act (SEA)
Establish a Single market by 31 December 1992
European cooperation on foreign policy (economic harmonization)
1992: Treaty of Maastricht
Creation of European Union
The monetary union (euro)
• Community pillar
• Political pillar
• Judicial and penal pillar
2. Working Towards an EU Constitution
2004: Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe (TECE)
Treaty of Rome II
Proposing a Constitution for Europe
Failed: opposition from France and Netherland.
2007: Treaty of Lisbon
Constitutional terms are banned ("constitution, laws, currency, anthem"), because European States refused the Constitution.
The contributions of this treaty:
• Creation of EU President
• The 3 pillars disappear
• EU has a legal personality
• Citizen initiative
• Institutional changes
Europe: lessons from the history to understand the future (or how 20th century can explain European Community conflicts nowadays)
The European Integration
Faster after 1992
Re-emergence of the regions and the weakening of central state
European Communities Act 1972
Right Wing Conservative parties want to leave the EU
Scotland Act 1998, Government of Wales Act 1998
Rise of UKIP (United Kingdom Independence Party
Flemish v. French
Wealth and Unemployment
New Flemish Alliance
European Union makes division of countries easier
Globalization of the economy
The flow of capital,
Investment and trading across borders.
Member state issues are going outside their borders.
The member states have no capacity to deal with the complex challenges of our time. New threats such as
human trafficking and
The Future of Europe
New balance between :
1. The supranational authority and
2. The nation state.
The future depends on the political will of the member states within the Union.
It can collapse on those who are against more centralization but it also can on the will of those who prefer federal union instead.
Complex Challanges of Our Time
To become a part of the EU,member states waive a portion of their sovereignty to the supranational EU institutions
The EU wants :
1. Increased centralization
2. Need for a concerted effort to deal with governance
These supranational requirements have lead to unrest among member states and internal disputes.
TENSION - EU VS. MEMBER STATES
ITALY AND EU.
What do Italians think about the European Union?
X They have been included from the start
X Two Italian thinkers are counted among the major actors from the beginning
X Ideally, they wanted the EU to save them from their own deficiencies but that fact has not been realized.
“The EU is not a foreign power”
Are the words of Renato Brunetta former minister of Silvio Berlusconi’s “right of control”
Carlo Sardo editor of the paper L'Unita said ;“The EU will shield and shelter Italy. Italy depends on Europe.”
The Trash-Crisis in Naples
The “Trash-Crisis” in Naples is a good example.
EU applies strict rules on refuse disposal, but garbage has afflicted people in Naples for many years.
It was first in the year of 2010 that the EU began to threaten astronomical fines.
In 1994, the Italian government declared for the first time an "emergency-crisis" because of the garbage in Naples.