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Energy

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Ann Blalock

on 16 April 2015

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Transcript of Energy

Energy
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Renewable Resources
resources that is possible to use indefinitely without causing reduction in the available supply

Nonrenewable Resources
a resource that cannot be replaced by natural means
Fossil Fuels
created from the remains of ancient organism that changed into coal, oil and natural gas

Renewable vs nonrenewable
What do you think about Energy Resources?
Where does most of our energy come from?
Nonrenewable Energy Sources
Renewable Energy Resources
Coal
Availability
Formed about 300 to 250 million years ago
Asia is the largest producer of coal U.S.A is the second largest



Advantages
inexpensive
needs little refining after being mined
US has 28% of global reserves of coal in world
Russia 2nd with 18% and China 3rd with 13%

Disadvantages
coal is a nonrenewable resource
transportation and mining of coal is costly and dangerous
Environmental Impacts
Mining
mountain top removal
leaching of toxic chemicals into near by streams and rivers
burning coal
air pollution (CO2 and sulfur)
sulfur is a main product of burning coal and causes acid precipitation
Health impacts
mining is dangerous
respiratory problems from air pollution
particulates etc.
Oil
Crude oil is also called petroleum
Availability:
found in folds, faults and salt domes
most of worlds oil reserves are in the Middles East
Advantages
liquid so its easier to drill and transport oil than mine coal.
one of the most abundant resources
net energy is medium but decreasing
low land disruption
Disadvantages
nonrenewable resource
supply much larger than demand increasing cost
vulnerable to international supply interruptions

Environmental concerns
Oil spills during transportation
air pollution
drilling is dangerous
formation of smog that can cause respiratory problems

Natural Gas
Availability
Much of natural gas can be found directly above oil deposits and can be collected during oil drilling processes
This gas used to be burned off but is now transported in pipelines
Oil Shale
Shale Oil
found in sedimentary (shale) rocks
costly and difficult to refine
rock is crushed then heated then goes through a long refining process to remove sulfur, nitrogen and other impurities that decrease energy yiel

sandstone containing bitumen (black viscous oil)
high in sulfur content
Costly to refine
large reserves in Canada (3/4 of worlds reserves)

Nuclear Energy
Availability
found naturally in many parts of the world
a small sample of uranium can produce large amounts of energy

Hydroelectric Energy
Availability
accounts for 20% of the worlds electricity
Advantages
inexpensive to operate
no air pollution
building dams for power also helps with flood control, drinking water, agriculture, industry, and recreation.
Disadvantages
dams change a river flow
can cause problems for both plant and animal life in a river system
Passive Solar Energy
Uses the suns energy to heat something directly
Using passive solar energy:
overhang on roof prevents higher angled summer sun from over heating home
large windows facing where the most solar energy can be absorbed during the winter
good insulation of homes to prevent loss of heat
Advantages:
any home can use this idea to reduce energy bills
Active Solar
Active solar heating uses collectors to heat water or a building
Advantages:
no pollution
no moving parts

Disadvantages:
produce small amount of energy
require extended periods of sunshine
energy is stored in batteries to be used when sun is not shining
Wind
Advantages:
cost effective
only 3 months to build
Wind Farms
large wind farms can supply 280,000 homes

Disadvantages
transporting energy from rural areas to urban areas is difficult
Biomass
Plant material, manure, and other organic material used as an energy source is called biomass.
TREES!!!
Disadvantages
most biomass energy comes from burning trees
releases harmful particulates into the air
Deforestation- 1/2 of the wordls trees that are cut are used for energy
Methane produces greenhouse gasses when burned
Advantages
Alternative forms of biomass
methane from animal manure is used in china to provide 6million homes with energy for heating and cooking
methane produced from landfills can also be used to provide energy
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/waste-not-turning-garbage-into-energy/
Geothermal
Geothermal energy is energy that comes from the earths crust
Geysers in California produce energy for 1.7 million households
Advantages
more consistent than solar or wind power

Disadvantages
drilling can be dangerous and not exact
expensive
must manage water carefully so it is not depleated
Tidal
Uses energy from rising and falling tides to create energy just like a dam is used in hydroelectric plants
Advantages
easy to predict tides
can produce more power than wind because water is more dense.
almost no environmental effects

Disadvantages
building and maintenance is costly
salt water is very corrosive
Dangers of Burning Coal
SO2 ( causes acid rain)
mercury in ash pollutes air
air pollution prematurely kills 13,000 people a year
larges emissions of CO2
toxic ash produced
57% is buried in landfills or abandoned mines or made into a slurry and stored in holding ponds
can leak underground and leach into ground water
coal ash spills :(
Different Types of Coal
lignite (brown coal)
low heat content
low sulfur
limited supplies
Bituminous (soft coal)
used as fuel because of high heat content
large sulfur content
large supplies
Anthracite (hard coal)
highly desired
high heat content
low sulfur content
limited supplies
Advantages
ample supplies
versatile fuel
medium net energy yield
emits less CO2 and other air pollutants than other fossil fuels
Mixture of gases
50-90% methane
propane
butane
very small amounts of hydrogen sulfide
liquefied petroleum gas
(LPG)
propane and butane can be liquified under high pressures and contained in pressurized tanks
this allows for transport of natural gas to areas that do not have access to pipelines
liquified natural gas
(LNG)
Liquified natural gas at high pressures and very low temperatures
allows natural gas to be transported over long distances
must be transported in refrigerators
must be heated up again and turned into gas before use
low net energy yield
Disadvantages
low net energy yield LNG
production and delivery may emit CO2 and CH4 per unit energy produced than coal
fracking uses and pollutes large volumes of water
potential groundwater pollution from fracking
Russia contains the largest natural gas reserve 21%
US produced the most natural gas in 2011 20%, Russia produced 19%
US used 22% of world production


next largest reserves are in Iran, Qatar, and Turkmenistan
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/coal-ash-spill-a-billion-barrels-of-muck/
Drilling and Refining
Peak Production
after years of pumping the pressure in an oil well drops
rate of crude oil production decreases
global peak production; rate of global production declines faster than new oil fields are found and put into production
Refining
Fuels are heated and separated by boiling points into their components
2% of products of refining are used to make industrial organic products:
cleaning fluids
pesticides
plastics
paints
medicines
Are We Running Out of Oil?
In 2012 world used 32 billion barrels of oil (1barrel= 42 gallons)
Largest producers:
Saudia Arabia(13.2%), Russia(13%) and US(8%)
Largest consumers:
US (21%), China (11%), Japan (5%)

Availability is determined by 5 factors...
1.) demand
2.) technology
3.) rate at which oil can be removed
4.) cost of making it available
5.) market price
Proven Oil Reserves
Deposits from which oil can be extracted at a profit at current prices with current technology
current oil fields are begining to decline
other options
light oil from shale rock
heavier oils
deep ocean wells
Arctic Circle
less net energy yield with other options
Relying on other options leaves us with three options...
1.) live with higher oil prices = higher prices on all items
2.) extend oil supplies by being more energy efficient
3.) use other energy resources
OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
12 countries hold 72% of oil reserves
Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudia Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela
largest reserves
Venezuela, Saudia Arabia, Canada, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Russia
largest users
US, China, Japan
hold only 2%, 1%, and .003% of worlds reserves
Where are shale reserves?
72% of oil shale rock reserves are under government owned land in U.S.
Colorado, Wyoming, Utah

Deposits could estimated to contain 4 times the amount in Saudi Arabia's oil reserves

Globally could provide 240 times more shale oil than conventional oil reserves
Advantages of shale oil:
lots of it

Disadvantages:
low net energy yield because of mining cost
pollutes large amounts of water
releases 27-52% more CO2 per unit of energy
Tar Sands
Removal Process
clear cut forest, drain wetlands, divert rivers and streams
overburden is stripped away to fer to tar sands deposits
high electric power shocels dig up sands and move to three-story-high trucks
sands mixed with water and steam to extract bitumen
bitumen is heated by natural gas and converted to low-sulfur synthetic crude oil
Process releases 3-5 times more greenhouse gas per barrel of oil
Dealing With Nuclear Waste
Spent Fuel Rods:
only last 3-4 years
must be replaced but are too hot and too radioactive to throw away
placed in water filled pools for several years
moved to dry casks
heat resistant metal alloy containers filled with inert helium
casks are permitted for only 20 years to make sure they do not break down and begin emitting radioactivity
Alternatives to Nuclear Waste
Recycling:
process spent fuel and turn it int radioactive plutonium so that it can be reused as fuel
problem: costly, can be used for nuclear weapons (India did in 1974)
US stopped recycling in 1977
increases cost of nuclear energy six fold
Shoot nuclear waste into space or into sun:
high cost
launch accident?

Dealing with Nuclear Waste
Deep Burial:
seen as safest option my most scientist
current storage in New Mexico
Yucca Mountain in Las Vegas was a test site but was closed down because it was not large enough to contain all of the waste
Problems:
people don't want to have nuclear waste stored near them
could become a hazard later on if not contained properly
Decommissioning Plants
Nuclear Power plants are usually decommissioned after 40-60 years
What do you do with the sites?
1.) store highly reactive parts in a secure repository
2.) physical barrier around plant with full time security for 30-100 years and dismantle after radioactivity is at safer levels
3.) enclose entire plant in a concrete and steel reinforced tomb (containment structure)
this was done to Chernobyl after it's nuclear melt down
structure began to break down because of leaking waste
Nuclear Power Lessening Dependence on Oil?
No CO2 emissions while plant is running
It takes 10 years to build one plant and large amounts of CO2 are emitted
mining of fuel emits CO2

1950's predicted by 2000
1800 nuclear power plants
nuclear power would supply 21% of worlds commercial energy
Actual outcome
432 nuclear plants in 31 countries
5% of commercial energy and 15% of electricity
2013
60 new plants under construction
156 planned
285 need to be decommissioned soon
Nuclear Energy on it's Way Out?
Uneconomical:
cost of ensuring safety
cost to build is high (low net energy yield)
government funding is high (taxes)
US has spent $95 billion since 1948
4 times more than was spent on wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, biofuels, and hydropower combined
Public Safety Concerns...
Ways to Improve Nuclear Energy
Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs)
meltdowns and radioactive releases almost impossible with new software

Passive Cooling system
using in Georgia since 2012

Thorium instead of Uranium
no risk of meltdown
products cannot be used for nuclear weapons

Possibility of Nuclear Fusion
Nuclei of two isotopes of light elements are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse and release energy
No Risk of Meltdown
no radioactive material released
clean burning

US has spend $25 billion over the last 50 years but we are still not able to use.

All current practices use more energy than they produce.

2006 US, China, Russia, Japan, South Korea, India, European union started to build a test reactor with combined $12.8 billion.

In 2012 cost was doubled and project was behind schedule.
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