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Cells

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Jeff Nichols

on 18 September 2015

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Transcript of Cells

The building blocks of life!
Why? Because anything alive is made up of cells.
Matthias Schleiden
1838 - German Botanist - He concluded plants were made of CELLS!
The Scientists
Robert Hooke
1665 - English Natural Philosopher - He was the first to view the cell under a microscope!
Cells
French Chemist and Microbiologist
In 1857 he presented an experiment that showed a microorganism was responsible for the process of fermentation.
Prokaryotic (Prokaryotes)
1. Lacks nucleus and other membrane bound cell organelles
2. Possess a cell wall, cell membrane, ribosomes, cytoplasm
3. Are a very basic cell type
4. Only single celled (unicellular) organisms
Example. E. coli (bacteria)
or Archaea!
Eukaryotic (Eukaryotes)
1. Contain a nucleus and membrane bound cell organelles (mitochondria)
2. Organisms can be unicellular or multicellular
3. A more highly organized and complex cell type
Examples: plant cells, amoeba, human cells
The Basics and Scientists
Louis Pasteur
Cell Types
If cells make up us. What makes up a cell?
The Cell Theory States 3 main things.
How big is a cell? Small that's how big!
Bacterial 0.5 - 5.0 micrometers
Animal 10 - 30 micrometers
Plant 10 - 100 micrometers
Theodor Schwann
1839 - German Physiologist - concluded that animals were made of cells!
Rudolf Virchow
1855 - Studied medicine. He concluded that cells come from other cells.
Socrative Free Response.

What is the spontaneous generation theory?

Use an electronic devise to find and answer and compare with your group.
1.
All
living things
are composed of
cells
2. Cells are the basic unit of LIFE in living things
3. New cells come from cells
Socrative Free response.

What are the three things that all cells contain?
Socrative Free Response

What are cells? Explain as much as you know.
Cell Organelles
-Organelle:
Specialized
structure found in a cell.
-It is a
mini organ
for the cell like our heart is an organ for our body.
1. The Plasma Membrane
a.

Function
: To control what enters and leaves the cell. (make on quizlet)
b.

Structure
: a selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer.

2. The Nucleus
a
.
Function
: Controls all cell processes (brain of the cell)
b
.
Structure
: Nucleus parts include:
i. nuclear membrane
ii. chromatin
iii. nucleolus
3. Nuclear Membrane (envelope)
a.
Function:
Control what enters and leaves the nucleus

b.

Structure:
Thin membrane surrounding the nucleus
4. Chromatin
a.
Function:
Stores genetic information, contains the code for the cell to make proteins.

b.
Structure:
Unwound DNA inside the nucleus. When combined with histones and supercoiled it is known at a chromosome.
histone + chromatin coiled = nucleosome
5. Nucleolus
a.

Function:
To make ribosomes

b.

Structure:
appears as a small ball inside the nucleus (dark circle) made of DNA.
6. Cytoplasm
a.
Function:
Supports and surrounds the cell organelles.

b.
Structure:
Clear jelly like fluid inside a cell.
7. Ribosome
a.

Function:
The site where cells produce proteins. (protein systhesis)

b.

Structure:
Very small dots in the cytoplasm and on the Endoplasmic reticulum
8. Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)
a.
Function: Site of many chemical reactions in the cell.

b.
Structure: A series of folded membranes suspended in cytoplasm.
i. continuous with the nuclear membrane
9. Golgi Body (a.k.a. Golgi Apparatus)
a.
Function: Modify, sort, and package proteins to be sent out of the cell.
i. after modification proteins are packaged in vesicles.

b.
Structure: A flattened system of tubular membranes. Resembles pita bread (3 folds)
i. Numerous small vesicles budding off of it (contain proteins)
10. Mitochondria
a.
Function: make energy (ATP) for the cell.
i. performs cellular respiration (process that makes ATP).

b.
Structure: Oval shaped membrane bound cell structure. Very small
11. Lysosomes
a.
Function:
Digest or break down substances for the cell.
i. examples: food, worn out organelles, viruses/bacteria

b.
Structure:
Small round membrane bound organelles filled with digestive enzymes.
12. Centrioles
a.
Function:
Structure that helps the cell divide by mitosis.

b.

Structure:
small barrel shaped
13. Cytoskeleton
a. Function: Forms a framework (skeleton) for the cell and protects it.
i. enables cell to move
ii. important in movement of vesicles and organelles.

b. Structure: Variety of tiny rods and filaments.
i. Microtubules: thin hollow cylinders made of protein
ii. Microfiliments: thin, solid, protein fibers
14. Vacuole
a.
Function:
temporary storage of water and glucose for a plant cell.
i. provides support.

b.

Structure:
large fluid filled structure.
15. Cell Wall
a. Function: Forms and inflexible barrier that provides protetion, shape, and support for the cell. (turgor pressure)

b. Structure: Thick, inflexible barrier found outside the cell membrane.
i. made up of complex carbohydrate called cellulose.
ii. permeable
16. Chloroplast
a.

Function:
performs photosynthesis
i. makes glucose

b.
Structure:
Large oval and green.
i. contains chlorophyll (green pigment)

Cells Comparison

All: 1. cell membrane, 2. cytoplasm, 3. DNA.
Difference between plant and animal.
Plant has 1. vacuole, 2. chloroplasts, 3. cell wall. Animal cells have centrioles.
Cell Size Limitations
Cells come in a wide range of shapes and sizes.
Form fits function:
Why are there so many multicellular
organisms? Why don't you end up
with one giant cell?
3 factors limiting cell size
1. Diffusion
i. nutrients such as glucose and oxygen enter and waste leaves the cell.
ii. diffusion becomes slower the larger the distance.
2. DNA:
i. DNA overload. There is only so much DNA to use before a cell can not function well enough.
3. Surface area to volume ratio.
i. The larger the cell the more
nutrients it needs.
ii. Diffusion does not occur
fast enough.
Full transcript