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20th-century classical music and modernist new sounds

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Kimberly Rhain

on 2 November 2014

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Transcript of 20th-century classical music and modernist new sounds

20th-century classical music and modernist new sounds
What are the characteristics of modernist new sounds?
The expansion and destruction of tonality
What are the 20th-century music styles?
Expansion of tonalty
Spread of chance music
Minimalist sound
Development of electronic music
Greater exploitation of noise like sounds
Extended techniques and sound percussion orchestra
Speech and singing
Ethnomusicology and political advocacy
New chord sounds
What is modernism in music?
Modernism is also known as
Avant-garde
movement.
It includes the emergence of jazz age and hollywood.
It is characterized by a desire for or belief in progress and science, and breaking away with tradition or common practice.
A series of movements arising out of the idea that the 20th-century presented a new basis for society and activity.
Various movements in 20th century music ,including neo-classicism,serialism,experimentalism and conceptualism can be traced to this idea.
The chief composers we will associate with the modern era are
Claude debussy
Arnold Schoenberg
Igor Stravinsky
These composers are considered part of the original "avant-garde"
movement. "Avant-garde" means "vanguard," which is a military
term for those who are on the front edge of a fighting force.
What are the modernist new development?
Early in the 19th century, composers of serious art music felt that tonality was not able to satisfy their needs for musical expression because of this,they began to experiment with new and different ways of organizing tones or pitch
Music in which tonality is absent is defined as
atonal.
Arnold Schoenberg (1874) was one of the first to compose atonal music.He developed a specific method for composing atonal music.
Atonal music is derived from the twelve-tone chromatic scale in which each tone is considered to be of equal importance.
During 1950s the twelve-tone system was adopted by many composers, including the leading composer of tonal music,Stravinsky.
This is an excerpt of Schoenberg's "Suite for Piano Opus 25"
Wallingford riegger used a tone row as the basis for his symphony No.3
Another way of expanding tonality is the use of Oriental sounds. Composers wishing to suggest the sound and color of the Orient often use pentatonic (five-tone) scale.
French composer Maurice Ravel 1875-1973) used the pentatonic scale as the basis of the opening melody of "Laideronnette, Empress of Pagodas"
Serialism
It is developed in the mid-twentieth-century. It often ,though not universally , begins with twelve-tone technique.
Serialism is a method of composing which uses an ordered group of musical elements to organize rhythm, dynamics , pitch, and tone color.
Some important serial composers:
Arnold Schoenberg
Anton Webern
Alban Berg
Karlheinz Stockhausen
Pierre Boulez
Luigi Nono
Jean Barraque
Industrial music sounds
Include different styles like electronic and experimental music.
The term industrial was first used in mid-1970's to describe the unique sound of industrial record artist
Luigi Russolo's 1913 work
The art of noises
is often cited as the first example of the industrial philosophy in modern music
Edgard Varese is also a major pioneer in electronic music; his composition
Poem Electronique debuted
at the 1958 Brussels World Fair in Philips Pavilion.
Typical instruments are:

Synthesizer
Drum machine tape loops
Drums
Guitar
Electronic sounds
Music created using electronic devices; electronic devices are often low-power systems that use components such as transistors and integrated circuits.
In the late 1990s, electronic music fractured into many genres,styles and substyles , electronic art music ,
musique
concrete,synth pop,styles of the 1980s;styles intended for dance such as
italo
disco, techno, house,trance, electro,breakbeat,jungle,drum and bass.
Iannis Xenakis is another modern composer who used computers and electronic instruments,including one he invented in many compositions.
Composers such as Alvin Lucier, Gordon Mumma and David Tudor created and performed live electronic music, often designing sounds using tape.
Chance music (aleatory or aleatoric music)
from the Latin
alea
or game of dice
chance music is the opposite of serialism
Composers choose pitches, tone colors, and rhythm by random methods,such as flipping of a coin or dice.
Pierre Boulez popularized this term and used this to describe works that give the performer certain liberties or freedom sequencing and repetition of parts.
An example of this is Mossaic Quartet by Henry Cowell
Features of minimalist sounds:
repetition
stasis
emphasis on consonant harmony
a steady pulse; hypnotic effect
can sometimes sound similar to different forms of electronic music, as well as the texture-based compositions of composers such as Gyorgy Ligeti.
The new chord sounds
Minimalist Sounds
Minimalism, an artistic movement of the mid-1960s
was partly a reaction against the complexity of serialism and randomness of chance music
seen by some as the "father" of this is Riley
involved dozens of composers, although only five (Young, Riley, Reich, Glass, and later John Adams) emerged to become publicly associated with American minimal music
this composers wanted music to be "accessible" to ordinary listeners.
The search for new sounds in the 20th-century has resulted in chords that often replace the traditional
triad
built on the intervals of thirds.
Chords built with intervals of fourths or fifths are widely used in contemporary music.
Tone clusters- neighboring tones sounding together -are also used today in certain kinds of music

Sometimes unusual sounding chords are built by combining tones from a tone row.
Combining tones in row order results in these chords:
Greater exploitation of noise-like sounds - "The liberation of sounds"
Edgard Varese calls the compositions that was once considered undesirable noises as "liberation of sounds - the right to make music using any and all sounds."
Electronic music may include:
Environmental sounds
Singers may be asked to whisper, scream, laugh, groan, sneeze, etc., or to sing phonetic sounds rather than words.
Unconventional ways of producing sounds
The greater expansion and experimentation with the use of percussion instruments
Futurists Ferruccio Busoni and Luigi Russolo use noises such as factory and mechanical sounds.
Other extended techniques and sounds
Harrison wrote for and built gamelans
Cage popularized extended techniques on the piano in his prepared piano piece.
Harry Partsch built his own ensemble of instruments, mostly percussion and string instruments for the performance of his microtonal music.
Speech and singing
Leos Janacek, Schoenberg, Allan Berg, and Harry Partsch suggested greater attention to use speech in music.
Janacek based his melodies and motifs upon rhythms and inflections of Hungarian speech.
Luciano Berio explored all manner of vocal sounds in his pieces Seqeunza III for solo female voice; it was written for and performed by his wife Cathy.
Ezra Pound wrote a monophonically-chanted opera.
The classical music of the 20th-century was extremely diverse:
Late Romantic style
Sergei Rachmaninoff
Impressionism
Claude Debussy
Maurice Ravel
Neo-classicism
Igor stravinsky
Serialism
Pierre Boulez
Steve Reich
Minimalism
Philip Glass
Musique concrete
Pierre Schaeffer
Microtonal music
Harry Partsch
Alois Haba
Aleatoric music
John Cage
Electronic music
Karlheinz Stockhausen
Polystylism
Alfred Schittke
Classical with jazz
George Gershivin
Leonard Berstein
Romanticism, Modernism,
Neo-classicsm
and Serialism
Igor Stravinsky
What is 20th century for you?
What comes into your mind when you hear modernism?
What's a composition?
What is classical music?

Nothing is certain but "change."
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