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Informational Text

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Whitney Jackson

on 23 February 2015

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Transcript of Informational Text

Definition and Description
Structure
Elements
Brianna Reed Stacie Swan
Mycah Mason Whitney Jackson

Informational Text
Informational Text
gives factual information about or explains any aspect of the biological, social, or physical world.
Its primary purpose is to inform
Subset of non-fiction
Often referred to as expository writing, or writing that explains
How does the author organize information to be presented?
Description
Provides characteristics of
the topic
Sequence
Lists items in order, usually chronologically or numerically
Comparison
Juxtaposes two or more entities and lists their similarities and differences
Cause and Effect
States an action and then shows the effect/result
Problem and
Solution
States a problem and its solution
The
theme
in informational text is the main point of the work.
Sometimes the theme will be a
cognitive concept
, such as the way viruses multiply.
In other cases, it will be an
emotional insight
, such as a new or deepened awareness of the social injustices that are part of US history.

Unlike narratives that tell a story across time in a linear fashion, informational text is often (though not always) non-linear.
What's The Point?
Elements
Style
is how authors and illustrators, with their readers in mind, express themselves in their respective media. Also called
expository style.
Includes:

Sentence length, text complexity, word choice, formal versus conversational tone, technical vocabulary, and captions.
Tables, charts, illustrations, diagrams, maps, and indexes.
"Style influences the reader's impression of information"
Makes up 50-85 percent of children's literature in school and public libraries
Informational Text in Schools
Formats of Informational Text
Informational Chapter Book:
Features a large amount of text that is organized into chapters. Graphics and illustrations are common, but are less important than the text.

Informational Picture Book:
Features large, uncomplicated illustrations and brief text.

Science and Social Science Concept Picture Book:
Presents one or two scientific or social concepts via brief, uncomplicated text accompanied by numerous, large illustrations.

Photo Essay:
Equally balanced text and illustrations. Excellent, information bearing photographs and crisp, condensed writing style are main characteristics of this format.
Formats of Informational Text
Fact Books:
Presents information through lists, charts, and tables. Examples include almanacs, and books of world records.

Informational Book Series:
A number of titles that all share a general topic, format, writing style, and reading level. A series can have a sole author-illustrator team, or each book in the series can be created by a different author-illustrator team.
Informational Text in Schools
According to standardized test results, students score higher on literary reading (narrative text) than on informational reading (expository text). This can be explained in part because of a lack of classroom experience with informational literature in the early grades.
1. It is only through
repeated
experience with a specific genre that one learns how to read or write that genre.

2. All children, even primary graders, benefit from learning how to read and enjoy informational text, since from middle grades to adulthood, most day-to-day reading demands are
expository
.

3. A key factor in comprehending expository text is that readers learn to relate new information found in the text to their own
schemata
, or prior knowledge on the topic.

Mullis, Martin, Kennedy, & Foy (2007)
200,000 fourth graders from forty countries
U.S. students scored lower in informational reading than in literary reading and ranked fifteenth overall.
Researcher(s) Subjects Findings
Researcher(s) Subjects Findings
Duke (2000)
Twenty first-grade classrooms, ten each from very high and very low SES groups
Presence of nonfiction texts and use nonfiction in class were rare to nonexistent. Consequently, students were unable to read or write informational texts successfully.
Campbell,
Kapinus, &
Beatty (1995)
National Sample of fourth-graders
Students with experience reading magazines and nonfiction had a higher average reading proficiency than those who did not.
What does research tell us?
Evaluation of Informational Text
Children's informational text must be written in a clear, direct, easily understandable style.
Facts must be accurate and current.
Captions and labels must be clearly written and informative.
Text must distinguish between fact, theory, and opinion.
Text must be attractive to the child.
Stereotyping must be avoided. Positive images of cultural diversity should be offered in text and illustrations.
Depth and complexity of subject treatment must be appropriate for the intended audience.
Sources
This information was retrieved from our text book Essentials of Children's Literature, (an informational text) Chapter 10; written by Kathy G. Short, Carol Lynch-Brown & Carl M. Tomlinson.
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