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Transcript of Neolithic Revolution
The world came back to life. Meanwhile, in the Middle East.
Over 12k villages resided. in the fertile crescent. Wooden posts are evidence of deforestation The first buildings were circular huts.
Rectangular buildings were invented after circular huts and their walls were stronger because they were straight and cornered.
The early humans also invented plaster and paint. Now that there is less of a fight for survival, people can have specialized jobs.
Some people are knife-makers, some people are potters, some people weave baskets and some people weave clothe. For the first time, humans start building shelters that are meant to last years. Environment Fields of grain appeared in the area called the "Fertile Crescent". Due to this surplus of grain, the Natufians had an abundance of food. What happened to the environment? A few groups moved to the Jordan river valley, an oasis in an otherwise dry land, and became the world's first true farmers. Storage of grain made the Natufians reconsider the nomadic life. Everything was going well for the Natufians, until, after 2.5 KY of this lifestyle, the Younger Dryas began.
Sea water, and other sources of water, froze during this Ice Age which caused a drought. Communities are constructed with 20 - 50 people living in them. Living in a community changes the technology. Hot stones are used to cook food.
Many different kinds of animals are eaten. A bola was used to tangle up large animals, so that killing them would be easier. Slingshots, bow and arrows, and atlatls were already invented, but not always the best to hunt with. The Natufians are still slightly nomadic, because they are following their game, but they have a semi-permanent lifestyle. Return of the Ice Age Hunting is dangerous.
You are susceptible to many injuries.
Weapons are fragile and break a lot. The Natufians relied on flint to fix weapons.
Double-bladed sickles also appeared.
The sickle made it easier to harvest more grain in less time. As well as hunting, the Natufians liked to carve things, such as pots, which they would later trade for basalt. The basalt was then used to make mortars and pestles.
The mortars and pestles were used to grind foods, like grain. These mortars and pestles were too large and heavy to move easily, so they were left at the site when the Natufians moved, but eventually the early humans would come back and they would be able to use the mortars and pestles again.
This supports the fact that the Natufians led a semi-permanent lifestyle. The Natufians had to give up on their way of life- the climate no longer allowed them to farm.
Clans split up into small groups that roamed around looking for a suitable living environment. The Ice Age lasted longer than 1,000 years, but finally it dissipated. After the Ice Age, the two nomadic groups met, forming a different kind of lifestyle- one of farming and herding. Semi-permanent Dwellings Hunting Tools Move, Adapt or Die Domestication of the Dog 12 KY ago, early humans domesticated the dogs.
They were hunting partners, but so much more.
People formed a sentimental relationship with dogs.
One example is a woman who was purposely buried with her hand on the head of her dead puppy. Some groups were not as lucky and had to return to being nomadic hunters.
However hunting animals was hard work and so the people decided to herd the animals into box canyons- canyons with only one way out.
They could eat some animals when they were hungry, but then save the rest for later. This is how the first farm animals were domesticated.
The first farm animal to be domesticated was the goat. Domestication of Farm Animals Along with the dog, the early humans also used other tools to help them hunt. With the domestication of different farm animals, this other nomadic group managed to survive. Village Life Animals were the cause of village life- people had to build fences and buildings to cage in the animals.
People and animals crammed together caused hygiene issues and plagues of illnesses. Early humans figured out the only way to stay healthy was to organize the animals and the people and in order to do that, they must completely rethink their organization of the town. The first piece of complex technology was the loom. 9,000 KY ago, early humans invented plaster, an artificial building material.
It required lime stone and very high temperatures in order to be made.
You would've needed 6 trees to reach the correct temperature. Religion The early humans took the skulls off the skeletons of relatives and decorated them with plaster, beads and shells
Eventually the name of the decorated individual gets lost and that individual becomes a "mythical ancestor" and becomes part of history. Goats ate tree saplings and trees couldn't be replaced.
The communities were destroyed by a self-caused environmental disaster.
1ky + before the farmers went back to the Fertile crescent. Archaeologists found a room with skeleton in benches, and hypothesized that it was a religious room.
In this building there were carved tokens depicting vultures and headless people. Archaeologists have also found standing stones that were carved with symbols.
These stones were probably ritual platforms where the dead were placed and vultures were allowed to eat the flesh.
Archaeologists found out that many different villages shared this one site. Eventually, more land was needed. Agricultural colonists spread throughout southern Europe. Hunter-gatherer groups were already in Europe.
The farmers and the hunter-gatherers traded and helped each other, but eventually the hunter-gatherers in Europe became farmers.
Farmers began to systematically clear forests.
This changed Europe forever.
Eventually people in Europe lost touch with the Middle East. Movement to Europe Back in Europe...
Early humans had to change drastically in order to survive in Europe.
They changed so much, they're known as the longhouse people. They lived together with their animals in long houses with whole trees as roofs.
The longhouse people used one kind of axe and made similar pottery .
They invented the plow to make farming in Europe possible. The Longhouse People The lifestyle of the Longhouse People changed Europe forever. Thanks for watching.
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