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Bernardo Lombardi

on 25 October 2012

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Transcript of Overpopulation

Overpopulation Statistics Effects Why Overpopulation? Causes Whats happening in the world? Global perspective National perspective Personal perspective Possible scenario Course of action Bibliography Area of study: Urbanization / Candidate Name: Bernardo Lombardi Costa / Candidate Number: 1226 I chose this topic because I think that is necessary to find a solution or a better way of organization on this problem. Mainly because the amount of people increasing in the planet is causing different problems, as we will see later on. This is also an important matter to me, because this problem is happening right here in Lima Peru, where I live, nevertheless, this is a problem that threatened the whole world and society that we live in.
Nowadays, this problem is being fought toughly by many nations that are trying to avoid this social difficulty; furthermore, the United Nations also has a committee in charge of this conflict, which is giving positive results and researches. This graph shows the increase of the population through the years. We can see that during the last millennium, the population has increased significantly, almost multiplying its number by 10 times. The graph here, based on the first graph, shows more clearly the information. By the starts of the 19th century, the population reached around 1 billion people. By the beginning of the 21st century, the population has multiplied by 8 its number, in a lapse of time of 200 years. We could say that with human evolution, the population has an enormous growth. Birth Rates Mortality Rates The chart above, provided by the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) in the year 2012, shows some world's facts about the some countries population.
The exact number of people in the world is 7,027.8 million of people, and the world's density, meant by the amount of people by square kilometer, 47.1. So the actual problem, is not the amount of people there is, but the density of our population.
In countries like Singapore or Bangladesh, (LEDC countries) the population density is very high, so we could say that there is a pattern between population density, and development and poverty. The terms “overpopulation” refers to the excess of population over its resources. This is a problem in many developing countries because there is a high birth rate, also linked with poverty.

In the year 2011, the world's population reached the 7 million. The census made in USA in the year 2010, made research and predicted that by the year 2050, the world’s population will exceed the 9 billion people.
Between China and India, they own 2/3 of the world’s population. A Worlds Population Density Map. This map was made in the year 2009. It shows the population density (people per square km). The darker areas are more density populated, while the lighter areas have more open spaces. The most highly populated areas are in Asia, mainly India and China. The majority of Europe, and some countries in Africa. While south and north America are less populated. The only pattern we could take from this results are that developed countries tend to have a higher population density. However this is not the case in USA or some countries in Europe, like Russia. The birth rate is the amount of birth there are in a year per every 1000 people. This is the dominant factor when we want to find out the population growth.

In the year 2000 the birth rate was 22 births per every 1000 people. By year 2011, there were 19.15 births per every 1000 people. So actually the births have decreased from beginning of century till now. This means that other factors such as mortality rate or population growth might been altered. The Mortality rate or Death rate is the number of death in a year per thousand people. The population growth is the birth rate percentage, over the mortality rate percentage. This indicates if the population is increasing or decreasing.

In the year 2000, the death rate was 9 deaths in a year per thousand people. The last census in 2011 showed that the death rate was 8.12. We can conclude that the life expectancy is actually getting higher and life quality too. And if we make the calculation, the population growth was, in 2000, 1.3., while in 2011, it was 1.09. This means that the population growth has been controlled and decreased in the past 10 years, although the population keeps on growing. The population is growing very fast. It’s a fact that in the last 200 years we have multiplied by 7 our population. And in the last 10 years, we’ve grown by 2 million.
There are some cases, were nations agree fertility policies, like were made in China, and were the government didn’t allow families to have more than 2 children. This was to control and reduce the population growth, and have a more balanced society, which would also balance the country’s economy, so they can tackle this issue. The population pyramid illustrates the distribution on the age groups of the population in different areas. The structure changes depending of the area or country it’s based on. Pyramids are divided in three parts. The base, which includes depending population aged from 0 – 15 years old. The middle part is the independent population, aged from 16 – 65. And the tip part of the pyramid includes the elder people, which are again stated as dependent population. The elder people go from 66 up to whatever aged people are. In MEDC’s, the pyramid shows a small base, with a wider middle part, and finally again a thin tip. LEDC's pyramids rather show a wide base, and a thin middle part, and even thinner tip. UK is a denominated as a MEDC (More Economically Developed Country), and so it follows the structural pattern of population. It has a small base, with a wider middle part, and a narrow tip, however it has a high life expectancy. Nigeria, a LEDC (Less Economically Developed Country) also follows the patten of population. It has a big base, and it gets narrow when getting to the tip of the pyramid. Differences between MEDC's and LEDC's population In MEDC’s, the pyramid shows a small base, with a wider middle part, and finally again a thin tip. LEDC pyramids rather show a wide base, and a thin middle part, and even thinner tip. We can conclude that in MEDC, there is a larger independent population (16 – 65), which is good for the economy, because they support the minority of the dependent population (0 – 15) and (66 – more) because the independent population have jobs and don’t depend on the government to sustain themselves.
LEDC’s have a larger dependent population, and so, the minority of the population having a job, have to support the economy to the government, so they can provide health services, education, pension for retired people, etc. Another way of analyzing both of the pyramids is by the tip part of it. In the UK pyramid, we can see that the tip is thinner than the middle part, but much wider that the case of Nigeria’s pyramid. This is because UK has more life expectancy than Nigeria, so more people live up to 80, 90 years old. So we could say that although Nigeria has a larger population, it has a less life expectancy, and UK has a more controlled population growth, which means a more balanced economy, because having a larger independent population gives more income to the government, that later can give more services to people, like health increasing the life expectancy, as it happens in MEDC like UK. Increase in birth rate Increase in life expectancy Reduce infant mortality Decrease death rate Lack of education Cultural Influence Immigration and Emigration Some precise aspects I consider could be the causes from which overpopulation keeps growing:
Nowadays there are more people being born than people dying. This means that population tends to grow. Medicine evolves and make births more successful.
The worlds birth rate has lifted in 2.75 birth per 1000 thousand. Nowadays, people live much longer than in other times. This is due to a better health services and the development of medicine that allows to people to cure and prevent diseases, so more people live longer.
In Japan, a developed country, Life expectancy gets up to 83 years old, while in countries in Africa, it just gets to 57 years old. Nowadays, newborns have bigger chances of surviving than decades ago, where giving birth was very risky for both mother and child. This is also due to a development of technology in medicine. Once again owing to advance on medicine, many diseases including deathly ones like tuberculosis and tetanus have been almost eradicated or can be treated under control. This saves lives, and gives more opportunity to survival, which decreases the amount of people dying every year. In some poor countries were there's a scarcity of economic resources, and for so, services and education. So for those who have a lack of education, they don’t get to understand the problem of having too many kids, or how to have protected and safe intercourse. And educated society can have more responsible decisions about childbirth in marriage and the effects of them. In many cultures, like in Morocco, adoption and contraception is not accepted, so pregnancy cannot be controlled. In other cultures including Morocco again, is normal having numerous families with 2 or even 3 wives, so one man can end up having between 6 to 12 children. Immigration is a problem in many parts of the world, and it can happen for many reasons. People might migrate from rural areas to urban cities, for better resources, job opportunities, better quality of life, etc. like it happens in Lima, Peru. Economy Environment Politics A country’s economy depends on its population, whether depending if it’s large or small, it needs to be balanced, with a controlled population density. Any change on the population affects directly the economy. In countries with a high density population, were the lack of resources is imminent because there are more people than resources available, leads to a deficit on the economy. Although some counties are more developed than others, overpopulation affects equally. The effect on the economy produces a low GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita (per each person). This means devaluation on properties and in the country’s currency; being this a direct effect of overpopulation. But as a side effect, the government, in an attempt of improving the situation to prevent starvation and the collapse of the countries, will need to rely on the foreign debt, which would just pull itself to a deeper economic deficit.
As a result of overpopulation, a high rate of unemployment is produced. There are not enough jobs for the amount of independent working people in the country. Poverty raises and the country’s development slows down. The effects of overpopulation on the environment are much direct. An excess of people takes down space used for farmland, rainforests and natural habitats, which eventually compromise many animals and plants living. 2 billion of rainforest hectares and 16 million are cut down every year. The lungs of the world are being taken down so we can build trees of cement. Carbon dioxide’s production rises, causing side effects as global warming, and habitat extinction.
Human wastes and pollution affects the environment too. In rural areas, people tend to take their wastes into the river, sea, or woodlands. The loss of this areas and natural resources leads to animal and plants extinction, without counting the effects that these would bring to the spread and contagion of diseases. Overpopulation does not have an actual effect on politics, but as we now, everything has an effect or a reaction to the government. But it’s the fact that overpopulation has an effect in both environment and economy that affects the government itself. Ruling a country with overpopulation and lack of resources has an impact on how the country is ruled. The breakdown of economy and environment may cause civil wars between right and left side of politics inside a government, which releases many side effects: crime, violence, drug and arms trafficking, etc. But with an overpopulation of people, comes an increase in the “Road Stock”, the amount of cars regularly traveling in the city. This means an enormous increase in the carbon dioxide production, air pollution, etc. but even a bigger problem, or at least the most daily facing problems, is the heavy traffic and the clogging of roads that people face every day going to work, or just circulating in the city. Traffic congestion and public transport I consider that one of the biggest problems of overpopulation is the traffic congestion, and the transport systems in CBD cities, where getting from one place to another can take hours. And using public transport is very uncomfortable due to the high amount of people taking it; this includes buses, trains, subways, etc.
The excess of private vehicles and public transportation not only contributes to air pollution by the production of carbon dioxide, but also takes a big part in noise pollution in the environment; this can cause auditory and psychological problems on people with the decibels (sound measurement) reach 115 dB (decibel unit), which in cities like Rio de Janeiro in Brazil can overpass this barrier. Ideas have been introduced to control the traffic congestion in big CBD cities like London and New York. For example the “Park and ride” policy, which stands that cars have to be parked outside the city center, and from that point, take a public transport to get to the center. Another similar policy was to charge cars going into the CBD, which in case would decrease the amount of cars flow, and improving the public transport system, which reduces carbon dioxide production. Another policy, but not as effective as the others, was to make some streets one way only to speed up the car flow, however this didn’t have an important effect anyway. Fighting traffic congestion To pass to next slide press right arrow The world is coming to a crossroad. Population is growing rapidly and the problem is pulling other consequences aside, and governments cannot find a way to stop this properly. The UN (United Nations organization), has a committee, United Nations Population Funds, which tries to stop overpopulation, because this causes several problems, one of which the UN is trying to solve: water shortage, and how to secure it. Campaigns have been taking place in countries around Africa, where there is the highest birth rate in the world. Campaigns consist in educating the youth on how to proceed in safe intercourse, contraception data and use and family planning. All of these together to reduce the population growth, in order to restore natural resources. As Dr. Charles A. Hall, a system ecologist said: “Overpopulation is the only problem; if we had 100 million people on Earth — or better; 10 million — no others would be a problem.” An issue that China faced in the year 1949 was that the population started to grow rapidly after the government policy to raise more people, because the population was formed by workers. However the plan got out of control, and after 4 years, the population reached 538 million people.
In 1979, the Chinese government came out with the One Child Policy. This stranded that married couples could only have one child, unless they had both been only child. This policy was a radical solution to China’s population problem in the 80’s, and by this decade, has reduced the growing population rate. In Peru, the growing population is growing within the years. However that is not the population problem we have. Peru is a centralized country. Everything flows inside the capital Lima: economy, services, public transport, industries, jobs, education and health. Very few other cities in the country have a major economic development as Lima. This centralization problem causes people form rural areas, with low accessibility to services to migrate to the capital, in order to find a better future. Rural areas and open fields are now left and in isolation. While the urban area in the capital is overpopulated, with an excess of pollution, transport problems, job opportunities are more difficult to find, etc. However as a global perspective, I should include that overpopulation, in a controlled manner is necessary, otherwise, another problem would arise. And this is, by the contraire of overpopulation, a lack of young independent population, as it is the case of Spain. Spanish couples have less and less children every generation, which makes the population growth, is decreasing, and in a few years, when the independent young population grows and becomes dependent, they won’t be enough to support the independent population. Taxes won’t be enough to fulfill the whole population, and the government would possibly go bankrupt, as it has happened in Spain. To avoid overpopulation in the 1990’s, Dictator Alberto Fujimori, Peru’s president at that time, introduces a policy to offset poverty in the country. Despite the fact that China had introduced a policy to reduce the population years ago, Fujimori tried to do something similar, but much radically. Although it was never proved, he was accused of sterilizing over 300,000 Peruvian women against their will.
However it was a plan to fight poverty, the population-growth was reduced in a 12% in a decade, and poverty in Peru was reduced from a 50% to a 46% during a decade. http://articles.cnn.com/2007-09-25/tech/overpopulation.overview_1_world-population-population-institute-population-estimates?_s=PM:TECH
http://www.activistpost.com/2012/08/un-water-securitization-study-claims.html I think of overpopulation as a serious problem, and I believe it needs to be controlled. As a global issue, it’s affecting highly the environment. As a national issue, it’s affecting the Peruvian economy and contributing to traffic congestion.
I consider overpopulation as cultural problem, because in society, couples tend to have numerous kids. And the government cannot actually control, and moreover, obligate couples to have fewer kids, unless a policy like China introduced, however that would imply a governmental policy which is not democratic. A way to solve this problem was introduced by China in the 70’s, but the 1child policy implies that the government would not be democratic any more. Also what Dictator Alberto Fujimori did in Peru was against democratic rights. So that would not be a possible solution.
So to conclude, I think that the best course of action to take over the social problem, are family planning policies, that would teach people how to raise responsibly a family and developing conscience about the subject.
This way, people will have a clearer idea on how to raise a family, and by the right terms, being this safe, responsible, and democratic. For the near future, I so not expect a radical change on the world’s population. As the population pyramids of the UK and Nigeria show, the world’s population will balance. The countries which have a high number of dependent population will later balance, and increase their independent population. And MED countries which have a low dependent population, which is essential for the development of the country, will increase its number, and balance with the independent population. So yes, the population will keep on growing, but it will balance, and decline its increasing line. A train in New Delhi, in India. The picture shows how people are affected by overpopulation in the transport media.
http://www.triplepundit.com/2010/07/overpopulation-fred-pearce/ Human overpopulation also affects the overpopulation in traffic lines. This highway is fully congested, and no one is moving due to the amount of cars there are.
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