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Transcript of Educational Technology
“A goal of education should be the development of individuals capable of doing new things and not simply repeating what previous generations have done”
Shelby Harter, Gabe Meyer, Emily Patton, Jenna Roberts, Maddy Stokes, & Camille Zumbro
Motivation & Engagement
Apps for Learning
Virtual Worlds in Education
Electronic Books in the Classroom
Educational Technology in the ECE Classroom
Take Home Messages
The Guiding Questions:
Can technology support children’s learning?
Can it be implemented effectively into an educational setting?
Aspects of Learning
Sparking and developing an interest in a topic
Understanding the content-knowledge regarding a topic
Engaging in explanations of a topic
Identifying with an enterprise
Technology and 21st century skills.
Need for Future Research
Little evidence indicates acquisition of content knowledge.
Ed Tech often enhances important 21st Century Learning Skills.
Ed Tech is associated with engagement, motivation, & interest across studies.
Not necessarily the tech itself but how it's incorporated in the classroom that fosters these learning processes.
Technology & Collaborative Learning Environments
Education should support children’s individual needs/interests/competencies (child centered)
Teachers facilitate learning through situational discontinuity – encouraging further inquiry and exploration
Fosters the processes of assimilation and accommodation - “scaffolding” (Vygotsky, 1978)
Constructivist Education in a Nutshell
Children acquire and share knowledge based on their own contributions and through the contributions of others within a group
Foundational component of constructivist and social-constructivist learning theory
Widely accepted instructional strategy
computing technologies (ICT)
So What makes this generation different?
Critical analysis of “Mobile Learning Projects”
Develop a common understanding of “Mobile Learning”
Identify gaps in the field of research
Mobile Learning Projects
Methodological strategies used to scan through over 1,469 papers
Selected 102 projects for further analysis
Mobile Learning Projects
Two groups of twelve 7 year olds participated in a 4 week experiment totaling over 20 sessions of collaborative activities in groups of 3.
Tech vs Paper
Significantly higher word construction test score improvements
Cell Phone Supported Constructivist Environment
Results suggested that the mobile computing devices:
More effectively presented the data.
Simultaneously mediated to provide a collaborative learning environment that followed constructivist principles.
Small Sample size
Authors believed that findings could be generalized and model could adapt to different aims and educational contexts
Important considering the potential impact on existing constructivist pedagogy
Tested the benifits of this emerging technology
Twenty two 13 year old pupils in groups of two
All were asked to make a presentation on Leonardo Da Vinci
Half used a traditional desktop computer
Half used a Mu Table (Multi-Touch Multimedia Table)
Collaboration and intercreativity were found to be higher among the groups using the Mu Table
Groups using PC were observed to have had substantially more occurrences of “free riding” behavior.
Mu Table stimulated individual accountability by allowing multiple users to collaborate in a “hands on manner.”
Study used both a sociocultural and social constructivist framework
Highlighted interactions between disabled (D) and non disabled (ND) peers
Twenty D and ND dyads ranging in ages from 7 – 11yrs old, were observed and videotaped while working together at a computer
Events were coded and characterized in terms of collaboration, non-collaboration and positive/negative socio-emotional behaviors.
Computer served as a scaffolding agent for interactions
Increases in patterns of helping behavior, motivation, self-confidence, and peer acceptance were observed
Facilitated and supported pupil participation mentally as well as physically (i.e. pointing at the screen or clicking with the mouse for reading, suggesting and answering)
Promising way to adapt to individual differences, development of social acceptance, morality, and values especially related to disability
24 students, 21 boys and 3 girls ranging from 16-18 years old
Technological and professional secondary school in Paris
History-geography course was chosen because of the relatively low level of importance it served to the obtaining of a student’s bachelor degree
Class was subdivided into “friendship groups” using CSCL software for both communication and collaborative work
Example of Failure
Student’s using the provided computer interface did not successfully accomplish the goals set forth within the pedagogical sequence
Students poor performance was measured by the teachers evaluation of the quality of argumentation and demonstrated understanding of critical concepts
Failed to consider the influence of social factors
Student communicative practices
Social structure of the class
Instances of failure provide valuable insight
Informs future pedagogy
CSCL in not simply a “Plug and Play” process
Importance of a teachers role in fascilitating appropriate activities and curriculum for CSCL integration
Understanding of the sociocultural factors within the targeted population
Found that mobile learning can best be used to provide support for learning within context
“Mobile learning” using constructivist approaches were more likely to facilitate deeper reflection, communication, and cooperation among learners with some prior knowledge
Learners would instead apply knowledge and not simply consume it.
Do you feel this app has a place in the ECE Classroom?
What are some characteristics of the game that you felt were positive or negative?
What are some attributes of an app that you think would contribute to children's learning?
Design Impact on Apps
“Communicating learning objectives in ways young students can access and understand
Providing smooth and distraction-free pathways towards achieving goals
Including accessible and understandable instructions and teaching elements
Incorporating formative, corrective feedback
Combining an appropriate blend of game, practise and learning components
Providing interaction parameters matched to the learning characteristics of the target student group” (Falloon, 2013 pg. 519).
Children’s fractions self-efficacy and fractions liking increased significantly after their two-week trial playing Motion Math
100% wanted to play again and thought the game was fun
95% also thought their friends would enjoy the game (Riconsente, 2013).
What Kids Think
100% the children perceived themselves learning with the app compared to 93% with the traditional game
90% of children preferred the iPhone app over the traditional game
96% said they wanted to play the iPhone game again (Furio, Gonzalez-Gancedo, Juan, Segui, and Rando, 2013).
Unsuccessful attempt at integrating CSCL (computer supported collaborative learning) technologies into the classroom environment
What Did We Learn?
Can virtual worlds be used in educational environments?
Individual scribble sheets
(similar to iPads)
Five step activity process that included face-to face discussion.
High levels of student participation and engagement-determined by the frequency in which student interacted both verbally and through text.
Diversified ideas flourished in this self-directed environment.
(Chen & Looi, 2011)
“Any computer-based environment that shares one or more game-like characteristics, including an environment that can be explored, a competitive element, a fantasy setting, goals, rules and outcomes, and interaction with others” (Whitton & Hollins, 2008, p. 221).
At the beginning of the project, students were significantly more engaged in lessons and activities involving the laptops than the control group.
As the project continued, students exhibited signicant decreases in motivation and engagement in laptop use.
Engagement & Virtual Worlds
This virtual world that allowed for peer and teacher interaction was found to significantly increase both behavioral and cognitive engagement during math activites, in comparison to the control group.
The virtual world also significantly increased student's interest in playing the game again.
Student's engaged in the virtual world gave more complete and convincing answers to math problems than their counterparts.
(Bouta, Retalis, & Paraskeva, 2012)
These studies tended to be based on self-report measures, surveys, and observations.
They were more qualitative than quantitative.
Mode of Implementation
Students in the collaborative game group exhibited stronger mastery goal orientation.
The also reported experiencing the game as more personally involving and relevant.
Reported increase in student's intention to play the game again.
(Plass, O'Keefe, Homer, & Case, 2013)
•Children’s play online mirrors play in the physical world (Marsh, 2010).
•Learning online also mirrors learning in the physical world.
◦This includes the importance of social interactions in learning (Oliver & Carr, 2009).
1.Open Science Island on your iPad
2.Work in your group to find 3 or more shells in 5 minutes
Ignore the instruction to go out to the ship wreck. Go up the mountain instead.
What worked? What didn’t?
Students who constructed a computer game were significantly more interested and rated their efforts higher, than a control group who just played a computer game.
(Vos, Meijden, & Dessen, 2011)
NAEYC Position Statement
"When used intentionally and appropriately, technology and interactive media are effective tools to support learning and development" (naeyc.org)
Dialogue in a Technology-Based Curriculum
Eunsook Hyun & Genevieve Davis (2005)
• Classroom integrated with computer-based technology
• Children’s conversations while using computers in the classroom
• Cumulative talk --> exploratory talk
• “Consultants” to peers and teachers
• Some students had difficulty with computer, and utilized pen and paper instead.
o Children evaluated which tools would work best for them
Creative Digital Technologies in the Early Classroom
Susan McDonald and Jennifer Howell (2012)
• LEGO WeDo Robotics program --> students worked in groups to construct and program robots
• Three phases:
• Interpersonal skills
• Literacy & Numeracy skills
E-books users maintain the same rate of improvement as peers who used traditional practices.
When compared with peers, the measures of growth were equal.
Korat and Shamir (2007)
No significant difference between groups in the academic outcomes of the study.
Huang, Liang, Su, & Chen, (2012)
Chidlren who used electronic books showed improvement in vocabulary, word reading knowledge and story comprehension.
Children who used electronic books with adult supervision, showed greater benefits than their peers who used
• Electronic books without adult supervision
• A printed book with adult supervision
• Those who attended the typical literacy program.
Benefits included: progress in word reading, phonological awareness, and concepts about print (CAP) beyond all of the other groups.
Segal-Drori, Korat, Shamir, Klein, (2010)
Accessibility of a game is essential for learning (Delwiche, 2006; Whitton & Hollins 2008).
Social interactions in virtual worlds make engagement higher and learning easier (Delwiche, 2006; Faloon, 2010; Oliver & Carr, 2009)
Students are willing to complete tedious tasks if they are rewarded for their effort (Faloon, 2010).
Failure may be less intimidating in a virtual world (Delwiche, 2006).
Learning objectives must be well established and clearly stated (Falloon, 2010; Whitton & Hollins, 2008).
Can virtual worlds be used in educational environments?
By having well trained teachers who are able to facilitate learning and teach in a virtual world.
Overall the students prefer e-books to printed books.
The e-book contains
• Visible learning process
• Tracking information
o Individualize the learning program
o Digital records of how children are performing
o Create a recorded link for school and home.
(Huang, Liang, Su, & Chen, (2012)
Feature brough the book to life: music, animations, recorded narrations, words were highlighted as the recording read them.
Dictionary and Repeat Options create opportunities for repetition and word recognition.
Different features scaffold reading helping children read books beyond their reading level.
de Jong and Bus (2003)
Is there a difference between ebooks and traditional books?
Do you think there is a difference when it comes to learning?
What could be some potential uses for ebooks
What might we expect the researchers to have found in terms of differnces between the two groups?
"Diving into situations rather than looking at them from a distance, is a powerful means of gaining understanding. Becoming one with the phenomenon under study is key to learning."
No evidence of test score improvement for this class.
Teachers reported that is was difficult to
control student's unproductive laptop
use in class
(Hur & Ohe, 2012)
Teacher's integrating technology in the classroom
Cviko, Mckenny & Voogt (2012)
Teachers interviewed on their views about teaching, technology, and innovation
Researchers observed amount of technology integration
Learning gains of students with PictoPal were greater than control group
Teacher integration of technology
High integration does not equal increased learning