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The Stages of Learning

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Emily Kirby-Jones

on 26 September 2018

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Transcript of The Stages of Learning

The Stages of Learning
These stages, although they are distinctive, are on a continuum.
Three Stages
When learning a new skill there are three stages.
Cognitive Stage
This is the
Associative stage
This is the
Handle Pass
Learning New Skill
Try and think of a new skill you have recently learnt...
1. Think about the mistakes you made whilst doing it.
2. How do you know when you have learnt the skill?
1. Cognitive stage
2. Associative Stage
3. Autonomous Stage
You are starting to learn the new skill or technique.
You have to
very hard about what is involved and how it should be performed.
Lots of mistakes
will be made
Lots of
and practice of the skill is needed.
This allows improvement
The number of
mistakes decreases
and the skills improve.
Autonomous Stage
This is the
The skill is performed naturally and doesn't involve much
conscious thought.

Skill is controlled and accurate.
Mistakes are rare
and when they do occur you are able to analyse the reason why.
You will gradually progress from stage to stage and are often crossing between two.
You might even go back a stage. When might this happen?
Create a storyboard for learning a tennis serve.
1. For each stage bullet point the outcomes you might see when in this stage.
e.g Cognitive:
Hold the racket
Learn standing body position
Ball bounce
Ball toss
Teaching a new skill
There are a number of ways of approaching teaching a new skill...
Whole Practice
Part Practice
Fixed Practice
Variable Practices
Practice all the different parts at once
Break down the complex skill into smaller parts
Repeat the technique in one situation over and over again (drill)
Repeat the technique in a range of different situations
What do you think this looks like?
Fixed- variable- fixed
What do you think this looks like?
Use page 160 to help you.
Which stage of learning is she in?
Type of Guidance
When learning a new skill we need guidance in order to acquire and perfect them.
'Help and instruction given to guide learners through movement patterns, skills and techniques, and so help them acquire skills.
This is a type of
Extrinsic Feedback
There are a number of types of guidance
Can you think of any?
1. Verbal
2. Visual
3. Manual
4. Mechanical
'Hands on'
Physical Support
Can you categorise these?
What you are told
What you see
What you feel
What supports you
Normally when learning a skill you watch images, videos or a demonstration.
A coach will often use words with images to explain a skill
A coach might physically guide you through a skill. This will help with muscle memory, as you muscles know what the correct movement feels like.
Learning skills (especially dangerous ones) might need support from a harness or safety object.
Task: In pairs, with a mini white board (use both sides). I would like you to:
1. Write at least 1 advantage and disadvantage of using each type of guidance. Use your own experience of learning skills to help you
Extension- How many more can you think of?
3. Think about and discuss which type of guidance might be used at each stage of learning.
2. Using the textbook (pg 168) write down at least 2 advantages and disadvantages of each. How do they compare to yours?
Good at ALL stages, but most effective for cognitive learners.
Cognitive learners might struggle to comprehend technical language, and may tire if used too much.
Experienced performers might find it more useful.
Manual/ Mechanical
Very important during cognitive stage for safety and more complex skills.
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