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Ethylene Oxide Production by group 10 Curtin

Group Presentation for Design Project 2012 Curtin University Sarawak Malaysia
by

Rin Thiya

on 19 October 2012

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Transcript of Ethylene Oxide Production by group 10 Curtin

ChE 422 Design Project - 2012 Ethylene Production ConClusion Process Selection Introduction Comparison of available Processes 1. Ethylene Chlorohydrin
2. Direct Oxidation:
a. Air Based
b. Oxygen Based
3. Membrane Technology 1. Ethylene Chlorohydrin
H2O-CH2 + Cl2 + H20 -> HOCH2CH2Cl +HCl:
2HOCH2CH2Cl + Ca(OH) 2 -> C2H4O + CaCl+H2O

Advantages ;
-good selectivity, 80% Selectivity

Disadvatages;
-Produces a lot of by-products i.e 1,2-di chloroethane;CaCl2; 2,2-dichlorodiethyl ether
-High in Capital and Operational Cost 2. a. Direct Oxidation – Air Based
Main Reaction : C2H4 + 1/2O2 -> C2H4O
Further Oxidation: C2H4 + 21/2O2 -> 2CO2 + 2H2O
C2H4O+ 3O2 -> 2CO2 + 2H2O

Advantages
- No Charge for air
-10% cost reduction of high pressure steam gas

Disadvantages
- 63-75% Selectivity
-High in Capital Cost
-Needs Additional purge and vent gas for energy recovery
-Unconverted ethylene loss around 2-5% 2.b Direct Oxidation – Oxygen Based
Main Reaction : C2H4 + 1/2O2 -> C2H4O
Further Oxidation: C2H4 + 21/2O2 -> 2CO2 + 2H2O
C2H4O+ 3O2 -> 2CO2 + 2H2O
Advantages
-75-82% Selectivity
-Only required single stage reactor, low usage of catalyst
-Generate less inert; Requires only small size vent
-Unconverted ethylene loss <1%
Disadvantages
-High Oxygen Cost
- No high pressure purge gas stream product 3. Technology Membrane

Proposed membrane units at:
-Reactor
-EO recovery unit
- Recycle Gas

advantages
- Cheaper
- Easy to scale up
-more compact

Disadvantages
- not productive enough Direct Oxidation Oxygen Based
-cheaper
-higher selectivity
-Produce less inert and CO2 Process Description
Mass and Energy Balance Equipment Sizing Sizing Minor Equipment Process Heat Integration Before & After HEN Aim: determine the pinch point & minimum hot & cold utilities

Hot pinch point : 39.14°C

Cold pinch point : 29.14°C

Minimum hot utilities : 27931.85kW

Minimum cold utilities: 6560.44kW STEP 1-Targeting of minimum heat utility Cold utility: water (cheap, recyclable and easy to obtain)
Hot utility: Medium pressure and low pressure stream (provide sufficient heat load at specified temperature and more economic compared to high pressure steam) GCC Curve with Hot & Cold Utility Usage Grand Composite Curve (GCC) and Utility Usage Summary Step 2: perform HEN below & above pinch Process Integration Emergency shutdown procedures and the effective measures applied when an accident occurs
e.g. chemical spill & explosion
Escalation of events must be prevented e.g depressurize critical units
The emergency ventilation must be controlled.
Watertight doors and fire doors must be closed.
Shutdown electricity
Removal of hazardous chemicals for safety reason Emergency Shutdown Sufficient in utilities – cooling water, electricity
Configuration of instrumentation checked and properly managed
System configuration
Flushing and cleaning
All ancillary equipment performances verified
A proper calibration of vessels and instrumentation
Synchronization of unit to system Plant start-up and shutdown Sustainability is important to ensure the long term maintenance comprises of environmental, social and economic aspects.
Resource utilization:
reuse recycled water from equipments instead of fresh water
Captured CO2 can be used as a fire fighting solvent in the plant
Society sustainability:
Power can be generated from the plant itself by using turbine which is also using nearby Gujarat River water source.
Increased job opportunities
Environmental sustainability:
Pollutants can be recovered by recovery system and proper maintenance Sustainability Necessary to preserve the balance in the environment
There are 3 types of waste: Waste Disposal The study of EIA covers:
Biophysical
Flora and fauna
Pollution including
air, soil, noise and water
Social impact
risk, location and health wise Environmental Impact Analysis Material of Selection Stainless Steel 304 - High Corrosion Resistance
-Able to withstand high pressure
- Minimize stagnant Dead Spot
- able to prevent polymerization Group 10 Alan Hok Thiam Yeik Ananda Nair Ovina Esthiyani Huey Ching Jong Raj Dave Cost Analysis Plant Location & site selection Market Survey Uses of Ethylene Oxide Project background Raw Materials, e.g. ONGC Petro Additions Limited (OPaL) & Dahej Petrochemical Complex
Transportation, e.g. Dahej Port
Utilities, e.g. Water & Power
Manpower
Government Policy & Support Plant Location & Site Selection Dahej Industrial Park, Bharuch District, Gujarat, India Plant Location & Site Selection Asia is the largest EO comsumer (~35%)
Increasing EO demand by 2020 (~10 tonnes)
High EO Demand in Middle East, China and South East Asia Market Survey Ethylene Glycol Production
Antifreeze
Coolant/Heat Transfer Agent
Hydrate Inhibition in Multiphase Pipelines
Other Chemicals Production
Glycol Esthers
Ethanolamines
Ethoxylates Uses of Ethylene Oxide Project Background Project Background Best Case: Product price increases 10%
Worst Case: Raw material price increases 10% Base Case, Best Case & Worst Case Cost Analysis HAZOP for Ethylene Oxide plant
Full transcript