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Transcript of Jainism
Celibacy (for monks + nuns)
Penance + Fasting
Avoidance of activities that might harm other living beings
renunciate + lay
Householders may be Jain too!
jiva - the individual's higher consciousness or soul
Hindu renunciate tradition
However, Hindu and Buddhist scriptures refer to Jainism existing long before :: so rooted in non-Vedic, indigenous Indian religion
Evidence of its existence also found in the yogic seals and statues from the Indus Valley Civilization
The universe is without beginning and end
It passes through continuous cycles of progress and decline
Tirthankaras appear on the decline to create religion, offer ethical-spiritual instruction, and steer people away from evil
Interestingly, the hagiographies of the twenty-third Tirthankara of the last cycle bear remarkable resemblance to those of the Buddha
how to avoid accumulating karma...
"Be careful all the while!"
Mahavir, The Great Hero, the last of twenty-four Tirthankaras
consists of means of eliminating negative karma, observing, purifying disciplining mind and body, and living by strict ethical principles
idealized biography of the life of a saint or teacher or holy person
samsara - the wheel of birth and death
goal :: extrication from the lower self and its attachments to the material world which involves purifying one's ethical life until nothing remains but the purity of the jiva
jina - omniscient, shining, potent, peaceful, self-contained, blissful
karma - subtle matter
Birth as a human is the highest stage of life short of liberation. Why?
kevala - highest state of perfection...
Two Main Sects:
left to avoid famine
only two possessions
fan + gourd
women cannot be nude
women cannot achieve perfection
Higher the life form, greater the karmic burden
Do not eat after sunset
Wear cloths over their mouths
Compassion for all creatures
Refrain from negative thinking and speaking
nonattachment to things and people
limiting consumption = way out of poverty, environmental degradation as caused by the grasping of resources
fasting unto death
final cleansing of one's karmic burden by ceasing to kill living things
How you might ask?
the Twelve "limited" vows
festivals + pilgrimages