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Transcript of Cellular Respiration
Respiration Glycolysis Prep Step Kreb's Cycle (CAC) Electron Transport Chain Chemiosmosis 3C Pyruvate 3C Pyruvate 6C Glucose 2 ATP 2 ADP + 2P 2 NAD+ 2 NADH 4 ADP + 4P 4 ATP Glucose is converted into 2 pyruvate molecules (catabolism)
ATP is added to get the reaction started (dephosphorylation) 3C Pyruvate 3C Pyruvate 2C Acetyl CoA 2C Acetyl CoA CO2 CO2 2NAD+ 2NADH Pyruvate is converted into Acetyl CoA in preparation for the Kreb's Cycle 2C Acetyl CoA
(from Prep Step) 4C Oxaloacetate 6C Citrate 5C Ketoglutarate 4C Succinate 4C Fumarate NADH CO2 NADH CO2 ATP FADH2 NADH Citric Acid Cycle Important Things to Remember 1. This is the preferred path for making ATP (aerobic)
2. Every time NADH or FADH2 is made, a substrate has been oxidized and NAD+ and FAD have been reduced
3. Every time CO2 is released, a substrate has been decarboxylated
4. Every time ATP is made, ADP has been phosphorylated
5. Every time ATP is used, it is dephosphorylated and results in ADP + P NADH
FADH2 e- e- e- H+ H+ H+ 1. NADH and FADH2 drop off hydrogen atoms at the first and second protein complex
2. Electrons are passed from one complex to the next in the matrix and hydrogen ions are pumped to other side of membrane (cristae) to form a proton gradient
3. Pumping of hydrogen requires energy (low to high concentration:active transport) H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ e- H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ 2e- + 2H + O H2O (water) ATP 1. Hydrogen is allowed to pass through ATP synthase back to the matrix, which adds a phosphate to ADP to create ATP
2. Electrons (from ETC) and hydrogen (from ATP synthase) are combined with oxygen to create water ADP + P H+ H+ Each Acetyl CoA turns the cycle once Matrix Cristae Cristae Matrix Totals 1. Glycolysis 2NADH 4 ATP
2. Prep Step 2NADH
3. Kreb's Cycle 6NADH 2FADH2 2 ATP
10 NADH 2 FADH2
(go to the ETC)
4. ETC and Chemiosmosis
10NADH X 3ATP 30 ATP
2FADH2 X 2ATP 4 ATP
36 ATP Payback:
1. Glycolysis: Used 2ATP to start
2. Eukaryotes only: Requires 2ATP to transport NADH into mitochondria Cytoplasm of the Cell Mitochondria of the Cell Matrix of the Mitochondria Cristae of the Mitochondria Cristae of the Mitochondria H+ H+ ATP