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Copy of Copy of Personality Disorders

Antisocial, avoidant, boderline, dependant, histronic, narcissistic, obcessive compulsive, paranoid, schizoid, schiztypal
by

Pamela Risser

on 7 March 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Personality Disorders

Personality Disorders
The cause of personality disorders is unknown although environmental and genetic factors are thought to play a role.
Cluster A
– Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal
Defining characteristics:
Eccentric or withdrawal behavior
Cluster B
– Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
Defining characteristics:
Dramatic, emotional, erratic/explosive, likes to be center of attention
Cluster C
– Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive-compulsive
Defining characteristics:
Anxious & fearful

Symptoms vary widely depending on the type of personality disorder. In general personality disorders involve feelings, thoughts, and behaviors that do not adapt to a wide range of settings.
Usually begins in adolescence
May range from mild to severe
May lead to social and work problems
Most do not seek treatment on their own
Tend to seek help once their behavior has caused severe problems in their relationships or work.
Diagnosed with another psychiatric problem such as mood, substance, or abuse disorder.
Treatment
Type
Symptoms
Expectations
Out look varies. Some go away in middle age without any treatment. Others improve slowly throughout life with treatment.

Antisocial Personality
fire setting
cruelty to animals
linked to childhood
Some believe psychopathic personality is the same disorder. Others believe that psychopathic personality is similar but a more severe disorder.
act witty and charming
good at flattery and manipulating other's emotions
Breaks the law repeatedly
disregard the safety of self and others
problems with substance abuse
lie, steal, fight often
show no remorse
often angry or arrogant
Signs and Tests
Diagnosed based on psychological evaluation
History and severity of symptoms
Must have misbehavior symptoms during childhood
most difficult to treat
rarely seek treatment on their own
may only start therapy when required to by a court.
treatments that show the person the negative consequences of illegal behavior seem to hold the most promise.
Symptoms
Treatment
Causes, Incidences, Risks
Complications
imprisonment
drug abuse
violence
suicide
expectations
peak in late teens or early 20's
sometimes improve on their own by their 40's
Avoidant Personality
Severe disruption during childhood
Disrupted family life
Poor communication in family
Sexual abuse
Borderline Personality
Condition in which there is a long term pattern of unstable or turbulent emotions.
Causes, incidence, risks
Symptoms
their interest and values may change rapidly
see things in terms of extremes such as all good or all bad
their views of others may change quickly
fear or feeling of abandonment
feelings of emptiness and boredom
frequent displays of inappropriate anger
impulsiveness with money, substance abuse, sexual relationships, binge eating, or shoplifting
intolerance of being alone
repeated crises and acts of injury such as cutting and overdosing
Signs and tests
Psychotherapy
Severity of symptoms
Treatment
psychotherapy
dialectical behavior therapy
group therapy
Expectations
outlook depends on how severe the condition is and whether the person is willing to accept help
Complications
depression
drug abuse
problems with work , family, sexual relationships
suicide attempts
BPB
Dependant Personality
A long term (chronic condition) in which people depend to much on others to meet their emotional and physical needs
Causes
triggered during childhood
most common personality disorder
common in both men/women
Symptoms
do not trust their own ability to make decisions.
upset by separation and loss
go to great lengths even suffering to stay in a relationship
avoid being alone
avoid personal responsibility
easily hurt by criticism or disapproval
passive in relationships
feeling very upset or helpless when relationship ends.
difficulty making decisions without support from others
Tests
psychological evaluation
Expectations
Improvements are usually seen only with long-term therapy
Complications
Alcohol or drug abuse
Depression
Increased likelihood of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse
Dependent Personality
Histrionic Personality Disorder
Causes
unknown
genes & early childhood events are thought to contribute
more often in women than in men
may be diagnosed more often in women because attention -seeking
sexual forwardness are less socially acceptable for women
Symptoms
acting or looking over seductive
easily influenced by other people
overly concerned with their looks
overly dramatic and emotional
overly sensitive to criticism or disapproval
believing that relationships are more intimate than they actually are
blaming failure & disappointment on others
constantly seeking reassurance or approval
low tolerance for frustration or delayed gratification
needing to be center of attention
quickly changing emotions (may seem shallow to others)
Excessive emotions and attention seeking
expectations
conflict in personal life may prevent them from reaching their full potential in their work life.
Complications
may affect your social or romantic relationships or your ability to cope with losses or failure.
go through many job changes as you become easily bored and have trouble dealing with frustration
because they tend to crave new things and excitement they put themselves in risky situations.
Histrionic Personality
Narcissistic Personality
A condition in which people have an inflated sense of self importance and an extreme preoccupation with themselves
Symptoms
react to criticism with, rage, shame, or humiliation
take advantage of others to achieve his or her own goals
have excessive feelings of self importance
exaggerate achievements and talents
preoccupied with fantasies of success, power, beauty, intelligence, or ideal love
need constant attention and admiration
disregard the feelings of others and have little ability to feel empathy
have obsessive self-interest
pursue mainly selfish goals
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
unknown cause
overly sensitive personality
Issues with parentsmay affect the development of this disorder
Signs & Tests
Psychological evaluation
and the history and severity of the symptoms
Treatment
psychotherapy
Complications
alcohol or drug dependance
relationship, work and family problems
Narcissistic Personality
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality
Condition in which a person is preoccupied with rules, orderlies, and control

Causes, incidence, and risk factor
obsessive-compulsive tends to occur in families. Genes may be involved. A person's childhood and environment may also play a role.
Symptoms
excessive devotion to work
inability to throw things away even when the object has no value
lack of flexibility
lack of generosity
not wanting to allow others to do things
not willing to show affection
preoccupation with details, rules, and lists
Signs & Tests
Like other personality disorders it is diagnosed based on a psychological evaluation and the history and severity of the symptoms.
Treatment
Medication: seratonin uptake inhibitors (prozac) may help reduce some of the anxiety and depression from this disorder
Expectations
Outlook is better that that for other personality disorder. Rigidness and control may prevent many of the complications such as drug abuse which are come in other personality disorders.
Complications
anxiety
depression
difficulty moving forward in career situations
relationship difficulties
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Paranoid Personality
Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is one of a group of conditions called eccentric personality disorders. People with these disorders often appear odd or peculiar. People with PPD also suffer from paranoia, an unrelenting mistrust and suspicion of others, even when there is no reason to be suspicious. This disorder usually begins by early adulthood and appears to be more common in men than in women.
Causes incidence, and risk
The exact cause of PPD is not known, but it likely involves a combination of biological and psychological factors. The fact that PPD is more common in people who have close relatives with schizophrenia suggests a genetic link between the two disorders. Early childhood experiences—including physical or emotional trauma—are also suspected to play a role in the development of PPD.
Symptoms
People with PPD are always on guard, believing that others are constantly trying to demean, harm, or threaten them.
These generally unfounded beliefs, as well as their habits of blame and distrust, might interfere with their ability to form close relationships.
Doubt the commitment, loyalty, or trustworthiness of others, believing others are using or deceiving them
Are reluctant to confide in others or reveal personal information due to a fear that the information will be used against them
Are unforgiving and hold grudges
Are hypersensitive and take criticism poorly
Read hidden meanings in the innocent remarks or casual looks of others
Perceive attacks on their character that are not apparent to others; they generally react with anger and are quick to retaliate
Have recurrent suspicions, without reason, that their spouses or lovers are being unfaithful
Are generally cold and distant in their relationships with others, and might become controlling and jealous
Cannot see their role in problems or conflicts, believing they are always right
Have difficulty relaxing
Are hostile, stubborn, and argumentative
Signs & Tests
If symptoms are present, the doctor will begin an evaluation by performing a complete medical history and physical examination. Although there are no laboratory tests to specifically diagnose personality disorders, the doctor might use various diagnostic tests to rule out physical illness as the cause of the symptoms.

If the doctor finds no physical reason for the symptoms, he or she might refer the person to a psychiatrist or psychologist, health care professionals who are specially trained to diagnose and treat mental illnesses. Psychiatrists and psychologists use specially designed interview and assessment tools to evaluate a person for a personality disorder.
People with PPD often do not seek treatment on their own because they do not see themselves as having a problem. The distrust of others felt by people with PPD also poses a challenge for health care professionals because trust is an important factor of psychotherapy (a form of counseling). As a result, many people with PPD do not follow their treatment plan.

When treatment is sought, psychotherapy is the treatment of choice for PPD. Treatment likely will focus on increasing general coping skills, as well as on improving social interaction, communication, and self-esteem.

Medication generally is not used to treat PPD. However, medications—such as anti-anxiety, antidepressant or anti-psychotic drugs—might be prescribed if the person’s symptoms are extreme, or if he or she also suffers from an associated psychological problem, such as anxiety or depression.
Complications
The thinking and behaviors associated with PPD can interfere with a person’s ability to maintain relationships, as well as their ability to function socially and in work situations. In many cases, people with PPD become involved in legal battles, suing people or companies they believe are "out to get them."
Expectations
The outlook for people with PPD varies. It is a chronic disorder, which means it tends to last throughout a person’s life. Although some people can function fairly well with PPD and are able to marry and hold jobs, others are completely disabled by the disorder. Because people with PPD tend to resist treatment, the outcome often is poor.
Treatment
PPD
Paranoid Personality
Schizoid Personality
Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of detachment from social relationships. A person with schizoid personality disorder often has difficulty expression emotions and does so typically in very restricted range, especially when communicating with others.

A person with this disorder may appear to lack a desire for intimacy, and will avoid close relationships with others. They may often prefer to spend time with themselves rather than socialize or be in a group of people. In layman's terms, a person with schizoid personality disorder might be thought of as the typical "loner."

Individuals with Schizoid Personality Disorder may have particular difficulty expressing anger, even in response to direct provocation, which contributes to the impression that they lack emotion. Their lives sometimes seem directionless, and they may appear to "drift" in their goals. Such individuals often react passively to adverse circumstances and have difficulty responding appropriately to important life events. Because of their lack of social skills and lack of desire for sexual experiences, individuals with this disorder have few friendships, date infrequently, and often do not marry. Employment or work functioning may be impaired, particularly if interpersonal involvement is required, but individuals with this disorder may do well when they work under conditions of social isolation.
Schizoid Personality
Causes, incidence & risks
Researchers today don't know what causes schizoid personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of schizoid personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation -- that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual's personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible -- rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be "passed down" to their children.
Signs and Tests
Personality disorders such as schizoid personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose schizoid personality disorder.

Many people with schizoid personality disorder don't seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person's life. This most often happens when a person's coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.

A diagnosis for schizoid personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.
Schizoid Personality
Symptoms
•Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships, including being part of a family
•Almost always chooses solitary activities
•Has little, if any, interest in having sexual experiences with another person
•Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities
•Lacks close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives
•Appears indifferent to the praise or criticism of others
•Shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affections
Treatment
Schizoid Personality
Treatment of schizoid personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms.
Schizoid Personality
Schizotypal
Schizotypal personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called eccentric personality disorders. People with these disorders often appear odd or peculiar. They may display unusual thinking patterns, behaviors, or appearances.

People with schizotypal personality disorder may have odd beliefs or superstitions. These individuals are unable to form close relationships and tend to distort reality. In this respect, schizotypal personality disorder can seem like a mild form of schizophrenia -- a serious brain disorder that distorts the way a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality, and relates to others. In rare cases, people with schizotypal personality disorder can eventually develop schizophrenia.
Genetics may play a role in the development of schizotypal personality disorder. This disorder is more common in relatives of people with schizophrenia and typically develops in early adulthood.
Causes
If symptoms are present, a health care professional will begin an evaluation by performing a complete medical history and physical exam. Although there are no lab tests to specifically diagnose personality disorders, the doctor might use various diagnostic tests to rule out physical illness as the cause of the symptoms.

If the doctor finds no physical reason for the symptoms, he or she might refer the person to a psychiatrist or psychologist, health care professionals who are specially trained to diagnose and treat mental illnesses. Psychiatrists and psychologists use specially designed interview and assessment tools to evaluate someone for a personality disorder.
Tests
People with this disorder might be at risk for developing anxiety or depression. They also tend to have poor social skills and lack fulfilling relationships. Without treatment, people with this disorder can become even more uncomfortable in social situations, which can lead to greater isolation.
Complications
Symptoms
Schizotypal
People with schizotypal personality disorder display a combination of odd behavior, speech patterns, thoughts, and perceptions. Other people often describe these individuals as strange or eccentric. Additional traits of people with this disorder include the following:
Dressing, speaking, or acting in an odd or peculiar way
Suspicious and paranoid
Uncomfortable or anxious in social situations due to their distrust of others
Having few friends and being extremely uncomfortable with intimacy
Tend to misinterpret reality or to have distorted perceptions (for example, mistaking noises for voices)
Having odd beliefs or magical thinking (for example, being overly superstitious or thinking of themselves as psychic)
Preoccupied with fantasy and daydreaming
Tend to be stiff and awkward when relating to others
Come across as emotionally distant, aloof, or cold
Treatment
Schizotypal Personality
People with schizotypal personality disorder rarely seek treatment for the disorder itself. When they do seek treatment, it most often is due to a related disorder, such as depression or anxiety.

Psychotherapy -- a form of counseling -- is the form of treatment most often used. The goal of therapy is to help a person change his or her habits of thinking and behavior, and to develop more appropriate social skills. Through treatment, people with this disorder can be taught to recognize when they are distorting reality.

People with schizotypal personality disorder who also suffer from another disorder, such as anxiety or depression, might benefit from medication, such as an antidepressant or anti-anxiety drug. In some instances, especially at times of crises or extreme stress, severe symptoms might develop, requiring a brief period of hospitalization.

Treatment for people with this disorder is most effective when family members are involved and supportive.
Outlook
The outlook with schizotypal personality disorder varies with its severity. The outlook generally improves for a person who seeks and complies with treatment. With treatment, some people experience significant improvement while others do not.
Schizotypal Personality
Mental Health & Counseling
Risser
Dependent Personality
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality
Symptoms
Avoidant Personality
Avoidant personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has a lifelong pattern of feeling very shy, inadequate, and sensitive to rejection
Causes
Personality disorders are lifelong patterns of behavior that cause problems with work and relationships. About 1% of the population has avoidant personality disorder. Both males and females have the condition equally. The cause is unknown.
People with avoidant personality disorder can't stop thinking about their own shortcomings. They form relationships with other people only if they believe they will not be rejected. Loss and rejection are so painful that these people will choose to be lonely rather than risk trying to connect with others.
Signs or Tests
Easily hurt when people criticize or disapprove of them
Hold back in intimate relationships
Reluctant to become involved with people
Avoid activities or jobs that involve contact with others
Shy in social situations out of fear of doing something wrong
Make potential difficulties seem worse than they are
Hold the view they are not good socially, not as good as other people, or unappealing
Treatment
Antidepressant medications can often make people less sensitive to rejection. However, talk therapy (psychotherapy) is considered to be the most effective treatment for this condition. Psychodynamic psychotherapy, which helps patients understand their thoughts and feelings, and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help. A combination of medication and talk therapy may be more effective than either treatment alone.
Expectation
People with this disorder may develop some ability to relate to others, and this can be improved with treatment.
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