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Copy of Soil Background Template

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on 16 June 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Soil Background Template

Soil Erosion
- climate changes
- wind
- deforestation
- water
- farming
- over & under grazing
In severe cases, wind can carry away topsoil and can create a dust storm
1) Loss of soil fertility by depletion of plant nutrients in topsoil
This process can cause environmental damages
Eroded soil becomes sediment in nearby surface waters, causing cloudy water / higher turbidity
70% of the world's dry lands used for agriculture are threatened by desertification
Humans have accelerated natural soil erosion
We can try to prevent soil erosion by:
Encourage safer farming
Entire civilizations have collapsed because they mismanaged the topsoil that supported their populations
Dust storms have increased 10-fold since 1950
90% of American farmland is losing topsoil 17x faster than it can be replenished
How did this happen? Who's to blame, nature or us?
3 to 5million acres of US farmland are lost each year through the mismanagement of soil
Since 1950, more than 1/3 of the world's
farmable land has been lost to soil erosion

Soil Erosion results from:
Desertification
Water Erosion
The amount of sediment transported by rivers to the ocean is about 24 metric tons per year
Tree roots hold down topsoil and prevent erosion
pH indicates the level of nutrients in the soil
Keeping soil saturated can prevent erosion by wind
meaning that the land is becoming less suitable for cultivation
more desert-like
2)
3)
Plant
Check it
Water it
Contour Farming
Windbreak / Alley Cropping
Crop Rotation
Use Organic Fertilizers
No-Till Farming
Grow Indigenous Crops
Bibliography
Tarbuck, Edward J., and Frederick K. Lutgens. "Chapter 6: Weathering and
Soil." Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. 10th ed. New Jersey:
Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011. 186-95. Print.
Miller, G. Tyler, and Scott Spoolman. Living in the environment: concepts,
connections, and solutions. 16th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole,
2009. Print.
Favis-Mortlock, David. "Soil Erosion Site." Soil Erosion Site. N.p., May 2007.
Web. 23 May 2013. <http://www.soilerosion.net/>.
Collins, Jocelyn. "Soil Erosion." Soil Erosion. N.p., 01 Feb. 2001. Web. 24 May
2013. <http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/erosion.htm>.
Oak, Manali. "10 Ways to Conserve Soil." Buzzle. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May
2013.
<http://www.buzzle.com/articles/10-ways-to-conserve-soil.html>.
Water erosion comes in around 11 million square km
This means the area affected by wind erosion is around 5.5 million square km
Accelerated soil erosion by water is responsible for about 55%
Around 15% of Earth's ice-free land surface is afflicted by all forms of land degradation
Wind erosion is responsible for about 30%
The area affected by tillage and farming erosion is unknown
The majority of the world's 862 million malnourished people are trying to survive on land with severely eroded soil
3)
The End
United States. USDA. Natural Resources Conservation Service. Soil Quality
Resource Concerns: Soil Erosion. N.p., Apr. 1996. Web. 25 May 2013.
<http://soils.usda.gov/sqi/publications/files/sq_two_1.pdf>.
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