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Media Studies - Media in the Online Age

Media in the Online Age topic revision.

Sarah Jane

on 9 May 2014

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Transcript of Media Studies - Media in the Online Age

Media Studies - Media in the Online Age


What is Online Media?
Online Media is digital media which includes; videos, photos and music, all are distributed over the internet. All non-copyrighted materials provided either freely or for a fee. Also includes communication.

Audience production is what people put onto the internet. For example, Wikipedia.
Gaming Industry
Why do people play games? One topic within Online Media is the Games Industry. People play games for a number of reasons, the main reasons being escapism, socialising, hobby and passing the time. Games such as Second Life & IMVU are examples of games that are played for these reasons. The internet has changed the way the audience perceive reality, allow them to meet people online and socialise more easily, allow them to become who they want etc.
TV & the Internet...
Television has also benefited from the internet and channel companies such as ITV, BBC, Channel 4, Channel 5 & Sky all have online TV sites where you can watch live TV on the go, catchup with shows you missed, like and share episodes via social networking sites and comment on shows with others. Online Television has made it more easier for people to watch the shows they love, interact with those who also like the shows, and offers exclusives to persuade people to use the site such as webisodes on BBC iPlayer.
There are three main theories that are used within Online Media. These are 'Long Tail' Theory, Wikinomics and We-Think. These theories show how online media has changed the way we think, access products, and work with each other...
'Long Tail' Theory...
The Long Tail Theory was devised by Chris Anderson (2006) consists of a large number of niche market products that are available in low volume, BUT their total sales are almost equal that of mass market - 40%.
Second Life - Pros & Cons.
Games like Second Life always have pros and cons. Users don't class them as 'games' as such, and class them as a 'way of life'. It all depends on how they are used.
Case Study - Ric Hoogestraat & Second Life
One key piece of research into the effect of these games is the case study of one Second Life user Ric Hoogestraat. He was married in game and IRL, he owns a mall, a private beach club, a dance club and a strip club. He also has 25 employees, online persons known as avatars who are operated by other players including a security guard, mall concierge, manager & assistant manager, the 'exotic dancers' at his club. He designs bikinis and lingerie, and sells them through his chain stores called Red Headed Lovers.
This is mass collaboration sellers working with a bigger company which then share profits. Consumer power, save money. A new global market has been created by Broadband. However BB is not available everywhere.
Brain is shifting with the development of the internet, sense of knowledge shifting. The boundaries between media & rest of social life blurred & contested, challenged world, education - peer teaching, no teachers.
Tech/Sites used
Different opinions
Easier to find information
Watch shows you may have missed
Listen to music
Upload to sites from other devices
Keep up to date on the news
Anyone can edit
False information
False website
Web callers
Age limit
Lack of restriction
Pornography/Child abuse
unsafe users
Info sites
Social networking
Media sites
Media players
Forums/chat sites
Smart phones
Game consoles
You can make new friends
Better virtual world
You can be who ever you want to be - healthy, beautiful, thin, handsome etc.
Encourages creativity
Takes away from real life
Relationships ruined
Could cause abuse
Can't be sure of others identity
Could cause bankruptcy
Online Radio...
Music & the Internet...
The internet has helped the music industry a lot over the past few years. It has allowed for music companies to sell their music online, cheaper than it would be in shops, it allows for a much bigger catelogue of music to be sold i.e. music from the 80's/90's being made popular again.
The internet has also made it easier to share music via social networking and sites such as Spotify which allow you to set up playlists and share them on sites such as Facebook, Twitter & tumblr.
However, music downloads have paved the way for illegal downloading. Illegal downloading does not help the artist and causes companies and singers to lose profit. But some singers think that illegal downloading has no effect on them and believe that you need to put out content which makes them want to buy it.
This shows just how seriously players of this game take it. To them it's a way of life, and this case study shows just how much the internet changes peoples ideas of what is reality and what is virtual reality. The case study also is a good example of how games such as Second Life allow users to change the way they look, make themselves look better than they do IRL and be able to make those with illnesses or life altering diseases be healthy etc.
Other ways in which TV uses the internet:
Radio has also benefited from the internet. Technology has changed in a way that allows radio to be practical and appeal to a younger audience. Back in the day, radio was more middle aged to elderly people, now thanks to technology and the ever increasing amount of radio stations, more and more younger people are now starting to listen to the radio.
Radio has also benefited from websites. This allows listeners to log in, share, request certain songs, follow the latest news regarding their station and find out when shows are and listen back to shows they may have missed. This is similar to online TV, and increases listeners and users to the site. It allows for easier interaction with listeners.
Essay Plan...
Question: 'For media audiences, the internet has changed everything.' Discuss.
Agree or Disagree with statement.
Relevance of Web 2.0
Evidence development
Development of internet
Quicker broadband/no dial-up
Audience expectation
Reliance on internet

Paragraph 1 - Music:
Pros & Cons
Long Tail Theory
Legal & illegal downloading
Effects on music industry
More availability
Less stock
Effect on social media
Paragraph 2 - Games:
On the go
Hoogestraat - Second Life
Paragraph 3 - TV:
Synergy - catchup supports TV shows
Download on demand apps on mobile devices
Share via social networking sites
Comment & share
Requires internet connection
Paragraph 4 - Radio:
Online websites
Range of stations
Sound Technology
Demographics appeal to certain stations
More interaction with fans
Answers demand for more free music streaming
Long Tail Theory
Playlists based on fan requests/charts
Promotion for artists
Paragraph 5 - News:
Decline in printed newspapers
Practical to have them online
Easy access
Easier to update
Different sections more developed
Pick & choose stories
Sum up points
Give opinion
Explain what evidence shows
Close essay
News & the Internet...
There has been a decline in printed newspapers now that the internet has been developed. Newspaper companies now have their papers online. This is practical as it can be updated more regularly, people can pick and choose what articles to read, it's cheaper, easy access, different sections are more developed. However, internet connection is required which you cannot get easily on the train, so online newspapers may not be practical in all areas and the older generation may still prefer to buy their newspaper as that's what they have grown up with rather than learning how to use technology and reading it online.
TV Guides
Social Networking
Renting shows on sites like Netflix
Blogs - perspectives of character
Online chats
Audience Theories....
Film and the internet...
As well as the three main theories, there are also audience theories which can be referred to when answering an exam question...
Hypodermic Needle Theory...
Vance Packard (1957) - the hidden persuaders.
Media can directly inject messages.

Audience is:
Passive- weak & inactive
Like blank pages
Cultural Effects Model - Two Step Flow...
Audience is diverse & more complex. Diversity in the way we identify & recognise things, due to different backgrounds and experiences:
Preferred (or dominant) reading
Ruling classes bombard audience
Becomes difficult to ignore & retain a critical viewpoint.
Not a direct process, but has a 'drip-drip-drip' effect.
Interpretive (Selective Filter)...
This is an active audience approach.

Some media messages get through, others are ignored or rejected (filtered out).

Klapper (1960) identified that for a media message to have any effect it must pass through
Selective Exposure
Selective Perception
Selective Retention

Uses & Gratification Theory
Blumler & McQuail (1968) suggested that people get what they want from the media.
Young people may watch MTV for the 'music' -middle age men watch for the semi-naked pop stars.
They are active interpreters and choice makers.
Marxists argue that this ignores the possibility of socially created needs created by capitalism to protect it from class inequalities.
Reception Analysis
People interpret media texts differently according to class, ethnicity, age, ect.

Morley (1980) - messages often have many meanings. (polysemy).

Audience has three responses:
Dominant Response
Oppositional Response
Negotiated Response

Postmodernism & 'Active Audience' Approaches -
Audiences are too diverse.
Media is diverse and complex.
Generalisations are impossible.
Reception analysis at an audience level is meaningless.
What is the point of studying audience effects?

The internet has had a massive impact on the film industry. For example, the way we access films has changed and increased. Before, we could only watch films through the cinema or television. Now we can watch films via;
Tablets such as iPads and iPods, smart phones, laptops and computers.
TV, DVDs and Blu-Rays, On-demand and catch-up services.
Netflix and LoveFilm
Illegally - pirated copies and downloads.
Games consoles
Online streaming
There are positive and negative impacts of the internet on the film industry, both of which have effected the film industry and changed how it has approached the audience and distributed films to the audience.
Positive Impacts
Negative Impacts
Media Convergence
More accessible
Free downloads/Online downloads
Audience control
Easier for independent films to get promoted

Illegal downloads
Internet access
Less demands for cinema
Not same impact
Criminals benefit - piracy
Additional Theories...
David Gauntlett...
David Gauntlett identified that the boundaries between 'Audience' and Producer' are collapsing. The Web 2.0 is creating social change, with society becoming more active, making, doing, and being creative.

Web 1.0 =
Traditional Media
- television, radio, newspapers, film etc.

Web 2.0 =
Digital Media

- internet, convergence, YouTube, twitter, blogs etc.
David Buckingham...
David Buckingham states that the internet has created a generation that is more open, more democratic, more creative and more innovative than their parents' generation. He also states that the new 'digital generation' is a force of liberation for young people, a means for them to create new autonomous forms of communication.
'The new generation of UK media power power players are ditching the traditional gatekeepers and going straight to their audience via the web.'
Plunkett (2008)
Signs and symbols, hidden meanings within media, how an audience may decode these meanings. Two types of responses; dominant or preferred responses and subordinate or negotiated response.

Dominant Response - Dominant or common sense values of society are accepted by the audience.
Subordinate or Negotiated Response - The audience accepts most of the dominant values but may be critical of some aspects.
Whats the difference between the internet and the web? The internet is the networking infrastructure which connects computers globally. It forms a network in which they can communicate as long as they are connected to the internet. Information is transferred through protocols.
The web is how we access information over the internet. Web pages are accessed through web-browsers such as Chrome and Internet Explorer. These also use HTML's to allow applications to communicate with each other.
Gaming Timeline...
Internet Timeline...
Arpanet, first real network.

PC modem invented.

First web page created, MP3, webcam.
First web-based webmail service.

Dot Com crash
Facebook created
iPhone and the mobile web.

• 1940 - Edward U. Condon designed a computer for Westinghouse display at World’s Fair, this plays a traditional game called Nim, tens of thousands of people played it, and the computer won 90% of the time.
• 1947 - Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. & Estle Ray Mann invented a game called ‘cathode ray tube amusement device.’
• 1950 - Claude Shannon invented chess programs, put out the basic guidelines for programming a chess-playing computer.
• 1952 - Naught & Crosses created by A.S. Douglass.
• 1954 - The first blackjack program is developed by programmers at Los Alamos laboratories in New Mexico on an IBM-701 computer.
• 1955 - Military war gaming enters the computer age, the game Hutspiel is designed by the U.S. military, this is a game which involves red & blue players waging war on each other. (red = NATO, blue + Soviet Commanders)
• 1956 - Arthur Samuel demonstrates his checkers computer program, which is written on an IBM-701, six years later the program manages to beat a checkers master.
• 1957 - Alex Bernstein writes the first complete computer based chess program on an IBM-701 computer, this program was so advanced it could evaluate four half-moves ahead.
• 1958 - Willy Higinbotham creates a tennis game on an oscilloscope & analog computer for public demonstration at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Although it was forgotten, it laid a foundation for later video games such as pong.
• 1959 - Mouse in the Maze is created by a group of students on MIT's TX-0 computer. It involved the user to draw a maze with a light pen, and then a mouse navigates the labyrinth in search for cheese. In a revised version, a bibulous mouse sets out to find martinis yet still remembers the way back.
• 1962 - The first computer-based video game called ‘Spacewar!’ is invented by MIT student Steve Russel. The game would spread to computers across the country over the following decade.

• 1
• 1963 - After the Cuban Missile Crisis, the U.S. Defense Department decided to complete a computer war game called STAGE (Simulation of Total Atomic Global Exchange) which 'showed' that the United States would beat the Soviet Union in a thermonuclear war.
• 1964 - Dartmouth's John Kemeny creates a computer time-share system & BASIC programming language, these make it easier for students to write, program and create games. Soon, countless games are being made.
• 1965 - Dartmouth students create the first computer American football game, earlier that year John Kemeny & Keith Bellairs had created the first game in BASIC.
• 1966 - Ralph Baer comes up with the idea of playing a video game on television. On September 1st, he notes down his ideas that become the basis of his development of TV video games.
• 1967 - Ralph Baer develops his prototype the "Brown Box," this lets users play tennis and other games.
• 1968 - Ralph Baer patents his interactive television game, and in 1972, Magnavox releases Odyssey, which was the first home video game system based on his designs.
• 1969 - A Lexington, Massachusetts student Jim Storer creates the Lunar Lander game, based on the success of the Apollo XI mission. It is a moon-landing simulation which was created on his high school's PDP-8. This game would eventually be developed for other computers and eventually into an arcade version.
• 1970 - A magazine called Scientific American publishes the rules for LIFE in Martin Gardner's 'Mathematical Games column. In this simulation cells which are isolated or overcrowded die, whiles others live & reproduce. Hackers rushed to implement it onto their computers to watch the beautiful patterns emerge & change.
• 1971 - A simulation called Oregon Trail is created by Minnesota college students Don Rawitsch, Bill Heinemann and Paul Dillenberger. It was a simulation of pioneers' westward trek. It was originally played on a single teletype machine; Rawitsch later brought the game to the Minnesota Educational Computer Consortium (MECC) which distributed it nationally.

• 1972 - The arcade legend Pong is created by Nolan Bushnell & Al Alcom of Atari.
• 1973 - David Ahl publishes 101 BASIC Computer Games, this allows gamers to become an ancient Sumerian king in HMRABI, find the creatures hiding in a grid in MUGWMP, and general the North versus the South in CIVILW.
• 1974 - The first FPS (First Person Shooter) is created. It was called Maze Wars and took players into a labyrinth of passages made from wire-frame graphics.
• 1975 - Atari introduces its home version of Pong.
• 1976 - Dan Wood's version of the pioneering text-based game, Adventure (which was first created by William Crowther in 1975) takes players into an imaginary world of caves with treasures. Inspired by Dungeons & Dragons this game paved the way for Zork and other computer role-playing games.
• 1977 - Atari releases the Video Computer System, which is commonly known as the Atari 2600. It features a joystick, interchangeable cartridges, games in colour, and switches for selecting games and setting difficulty settings. It makes millions of Americans home video game players.

• 1978 - Space Invaders descends onto Japan, within a year, there are 60,000 Space Invaders machines in America.
• 1979 - Toy-maker Mattel releases its own console, the Intellivision. This has better graphics and more complicated controls than the Atari 2600, and players love its sports games. Mattel sells three million units.
• 1980 - Pac-Man is created by Namco's Toru Iwatani, and went on sale in July 1980. That year a version of Pac-Man for Atari 2600 becomes the first arcade hit to appear on a home console.
• 1981 – Nintendo’s Donkey Kong is released; it features a certain character which later becomes famous, Mario. In the game he is called Jumpman.
• 1982 – Disney decides to join in with the video game crowd, and releases the movie Tron. Later, an arcade game featuring many of the contests from the movie becomes a hit.
• 1983 – Co-op play takes a huge step forward with Dan Bunten’s M.U.L.E. In the game, players save their colony on the planet of Irata while gathering resources.

• 1984 – The year Tetris is created by a Russian mathematician Alexey Pajitov, the game leaks out from behind the Iron Curtain, four years later Nintendo then bundle it onto every new Game Boy.
• 1985 – Nintendo releases the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES); it revives the United States video game industry two years after they released it in Japan as Famicon.
• 1986 - The Learning Company brings out a Reader Rabbit program to leap ahead of the educational software market. The educational computer business explodes with the introduction of CD-ROMs in the 1990s, but crashes with the rise of the internet.
• 1987 – Legend of Zelda is created by Shigeru Miyamoto; SSI gains the video game license for Dungeons & Dragons and Sierra creates Leisure Suit Larry which gives players a different kind of adult role playing game.
• 1988 - John Madden Football is released and introduces gridiron realism to computer games, making this and it’s console sequels – best sellers.

• 1989 – Nintendo releases their Game Boy and popularizes handheld gaming. However, it’s not the first handheld system with interchangeable cartridges, Milton Bradley introduced one 10 years earlier – the Microvision, but the Game Boy charms users with its good game play, ease of use and long battery life.
• 1990 – Microsoft starts to bundle the game Solitaire with Windows 3.0. Millions of users who would not normally buy a game console find they enjoy playing computer games. Solitaire becomes one of the most popular electronic games ever and provides a gaming model for quick, easy-to-play, casual games like Bejeweled.
• 1991 - Sonic the Hedgehog is introduced to the Genesis (also known as the Mega Drive in Japan).
• 1992 – Westwood Studios’ Dune II establishes the popularity of real-time strategy games that require players to act as military leaders and place their resources and deploying forces to defeat opponents.
• 1993 – Due to concern about bloodshed in games such as Mortal Kombat, the video game rating system is established.

• 1994 - Blizzard releases Warcraft: Orcs and Humans, another real-time strategy game that introduces players to the world of Azeroth. 14 years later, they would release the most popular MMO game – World of Warcraft.
• 1995 – Sony release the PlayStation, the lowered price of this console and the arrival of Nintendo 64 in 1996 weakens Sega’s home console business. When Sony releases the PlayStation 2, it becomes the dominant household console, and Sega would exit the home console business.
• 1996 – Lara Croft makes her debut in the game Tomb Raider. Players lover her, but she sparks an ongoing debate about the sexism in video games.
• 1997 – IBM’s supercomputer chess program Deep Blue defeats world champion Gary Kasparov in a match.
• 1998 – Legend of Zelda: Ocarina of Time is released, and transports players into the richly imagined world of Hyrule, full of characters, thought-provoking puzzles and the most memorable musical instrument ever to appear in a video game.

• 1999 - Everquest is Sony Online’s newest game which leads hundreds of thousands of users to join guilds, fight monsters, and level up in the multiplayer online world of Norrath.
• 2000 – The Sims makes its first appearance; it becomes the best-selling computer game ever and is the most popular game among female gamers.
• 2001 – Microsoft enters the video game market with Xbox and hit games like Halo: Combat Evolved. Four years later, Xbox 360 gains millions of fans with its advanced graphics and seamless online play, and 12 years later they would introduce their most advanced model yet, the Xbox One.
• 2002 - Lt. Colonel Casey Wardynski conceives of a U.S. Army branded video game. In 2002, the army releases America's Army to help recruit and communicate with a new generation of electronic gamers.
• 2003 – Valve introduces its online game store called Steam which allows gamers to buy their favorite games online, which is cheaper than buying them in store. It allows them to download them, play them and update them.
• 2004 – Nintendo updates its handheld gaming devices by releasing the DS, it has two screens, one is touch screen, has a stylus, multiplayer capabilities.

• 2005 - Microsoft release the next version of their console – Xbox 360
• 2006 – Nintendo refreshes their gaming consoles and brings out the Wii. It gets players off the couch with motion-sensitive remotes. They not only make playing games more active, but appeal to those who have no interest in gaming.
• 2007 – Harmonix release Rock Band a game which utilizes instruments and a microphone and appeals to millions of would-be musicians.
• 2008 – Blizzard release the most popular MMO – World of Warcraft. MMOs create entire virtual universes for players and redefine how we play, learn, and relate to each other.
• 2009 – The hit mobile game Angry Birds makes its first appearance and shakes up the games industry. Millions of people who never would have considered themselves gamers now while away hours playing games on new platforms like Facebook and the iPhone.
• 2010 – Mojang release the most popular indie title yet, Minecraft. This game allows players to build their own world, play with their friends, make adventure maps for others to play, mods to enhance gameplay and texture packs to change the appearance of the game.
• 2011 - Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim showcases the beauty, majesty, and massiveness of video games as players explore a seemingly endless, beautifully rendered fantasy world.

Distribution is often referred to as releasing films in the market.

In the independent film sector, vertical integration does not operate so commonly.

Distribution is necessarily a collaborative process, requiring the materials and the rights of the producer and the co-operation of the exhibitor to promote the film in the best way possible.

Distribution can be divided into three stages; licensing, marketing and logistics.

The distributor enters an agreement with the cinema to screen the film on certain 'play dates'. It's the responsibility of the distributor to physically transport DVD's to those who are going to sell them.

Digital technology is seen to offer a more cost effect & logistics-light alternative to the tried and trusted, but unwieldly model of 35mm print of distribution.

It will eventually be cheaper and much less stressful to send films as computer files to cinemas across the UK, than to transport 20-25kg tins of film in the back of a van.

Viral marketing describes any strategy that encourages individuals to pass on a marketing message to others, creating potential for exponential growth in the message's exposure and influence.

This is also referred to as 'word of mouth'.

Can be teaser and viral.
Level of influence
Theory of media it mainly relates to?
Hypodermic Needle
Cultivation Theory
Two Step Flow Theory
Uses & Gratifications
Reception Analysis
Very High
Hegemonic Marxist
Hegemonic Marxist
Post Modernists
Very Low
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