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Transcript of Lev Vygotsky
Effects of Culture Questions
Do you think that Vygotsky would have emphasized the effects of culture on learning if he was born in a different time and not influenced by the Russian Revolution?
How do you think your culture has impacted your intellectual development.
Vygotsky vs Piaget
VYGOTSKY’S SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY OF COGNITIVE
Ian Alevizon Seth Babcock Brittany Davis Sophia Bender Kelly Dale
1. Name: Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky
4. Spouse: Married Roza Noevna Smekhova in 1924
2. Birth: Born on November 17th
1896 in Orsha, Belarus in the
Russian Empire (present-day Belarus)
3. Died on June 11th 1934 in
5. Children: Gita Vygodskaya and Asya Vygodskaya
6. Education: Studied law at Moscow State University
8. Where his work began: In 1924, Vygotsky moved
to Moscow to be a staff scientist and completed a dissertation on the “Psychology of Art” and a book called “Pedagogical Psychology”
7. What he’s known for: He’s known for his work in developmental psychology
9. His work was not published until after 25 years
after his passing
10. He believed that biological and social factors
played a role in development but differed from other theorists by claiming that culture also played a role in development (Lightfoot, M. Cole, & S. Cole, 2009)
Historical Influence of Era on Vtgotsky
Political environment that influenced
Russian Revolution led to Marxism
Marxist philosophy emphasized socialism and collectivism
The effects of culture: Culture could be understood only through examination of the ideas and events that shaped it.
Effects of Culture
Culture has two types of effects on a child's intellectual development.
Children acquire much of their knowledge from culture.
Children then make meaning of that knowledge based on their surrounding culture.
Effects of Culture Example
Culture and Memory
Video demonstrating difference between Vygotsky vs Piaget
Social Development Question
What did Vygotsky mean by "making meaning"?
Two critical roles language plays in cognitive development:
Community plays a role in "making meaning".
Development shaped by nature and nurture.
Children in New Guinea
Social Development Theory
Social Learning tends to precede development.
No single principle can account for development.
Reference to social and cultural context is key to understanding.
Relevant contemporary special education
Main means by which adults transmit information to children.
Language itself becomes very powerful tool of intellectual adaptation.
Private vs Inner Speech
Internal/private speech refers to when a person talks aloud to themselves.
Private speech a means for kids to plan aiding in development.
Children who engage in large amounts of private speech more socially competent.
Through time, language becomes internalized as thought and "inner speech".
Thought is the result of language
Importance when addressing children. (Developing language)
Asking child about leaves, example.
Jigsaw Example (Shaffer, 1996)
Zone of Proximal Development
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
Gap between what children can accomplish independently and what they can accomplish with the help of others.
Assistance provided goes just slightly beyond the child's current existing abilities.
Research- Freund (1990)
Children placing furniture in rooms of dollhouse.
ZPD-Practiced with mom (MKO).
Piaget's discovery learning (no mom).
Issues of Diversity
More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)
The MKO has a better understanding or a higher ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task
process, or concept.
The MKO is normally thought of as being a teacher, coach, or older adult, but the MKO could also be peers, a younger person, or even computers.
Examples: Electronic and younger.
Questions for discussion
Can you think of learning situations where ZPD and MKO don't have as much meaning?
Give an example how any of Vygotsky's previously mentioned theories do not apply to other cultures or diverse groups.
Please make this rectangular box out of a piece of printer paper.
Break out session
Does not consider the effects of gender
Impractical: Requires one on one education
Informal research methods
Scholarly integrity is questionable due to theories being translated from Russian.
Published texts were unfinished and not intended to be published.
True and False
1. Vygotsky started his research decades after Piaget.
2. Vygotsky valued "private speech" as a means for children to plan activities and strategies in turn aiding their development.
3. A modern adaptation of an MKO is computer aided learning modules.
4. Vygotsky firmly believed in a child's surroundings being an integral part of their cognitive development.
True and False
5. Vygotsky believed that tools of intellectual adaptation were specific and concrete and applied to all cultures in the same manner.
6. About one quarter of Vygotsky's works were published shortly before his death.
7. Higher mental processes in an individual have their origin in social processes" is a key principle of Vygotsky' theory.
8. Vygotsky was the latest psychologist to document the importance of private speech because it had been nearly abandoned in the scientific community.
Believed strongly that the psychological and social dimensions were almost interchangeable.
Both good and bad come from such a close relationship.
Likely, a fan of community based treatment.
Diversity: Special Education
Handicapped students need different curriculum, trained specialists, more time to learn, and an enhanced learning environment.
Suggested viewing disability from strength based perspective.
His approach was used 60 years later by American Association of Mental Retardation.
Vygotsky believed cultures shapes development and therefore is able to apply his theory to cultures other than his own.
Example of math development in New Guinea (Lightfoot, M. Cole, & S. Cole, 2009)
Abnormalities are not seen as abnormalities until they are brought into the social context.
The brain, eye, ear, or limb are not just organs. The impairment of these organs leads to restructuring of social relationships and displacement of behavior (Vygotsky, 1983).
Blindness (Survival) vs. deafness (Social/culture).
Vygotsky did not believe in terms like developmental disability.
Any organic defect is revealed as a social abnormality in behavior.
Children curious and actively involved.
Vygotsky put emphasis on social contributions to intellectual development (ZPD).
Interaction of skillful tutor (MKO). Models behaviors/verbal instructions.