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EFFECTS OF OIL SPILL ON LAND AND WATER

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Avoke Ogumor

on 27 May 2013

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Transcript of EFFECTS OF OIL SPILL ON LAND AND WATER

EFFECTS OF OIL SPILL ON LAND AND WATER CAUSES OF OIL SPILL EFFECTS OF OIL SPILL ON LAND OIL SPILL EFFECTS OF OIL SPILL ON WATER WAYS TO CLEAN UP OIL SPILL An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially land and water. It either be accidental or due to operational activities, and it is a form of pollution. MECHANICAL CONTAMINANT RECOVERY Skimmers , Pads and Booms CHEMICAL METHODS Dispersants and solidifiers BURNING BIOREMEDIATION In-situ Burning Bioagumentation and Biostimulation Natural Causes e.g. climatic factors, natural disturbances.
Accidental spills during storage, transportation and handling.
Oil Production operations such as offshore drilling, routine maintenance activities etc.
Sabotage
Inadequate or non-functional equipment
Oil spills at sea are generally much more damaging, since they can spread for hundreds of miles in a thin oil slick which can cover beaches with a thin coating of oil. The effects of oil spill include:

Marine Life Degradation
Deterioration of Fish Industry
Deterioration of Local Industry MARINE LIFE DEGRADATION Aquatic wildlife and their habitats are affected by oil spills by means of physical contact, ingestion, absorption, and inhalation.
Oil spills can cause marine invertebrates to choke. They can also alter their metabolic activity and shell development. These invertebrates may accumulate high levels of toxins in their bodies, which get passed on to their predators when they are eaten.
Fish tend to ingest large amounts of oil through their gills, which seriously affects the health of their eggs and larva. In adult fish, an oil spill may cause damage like reduced growth, improper heart and respiration rates, fin erosion, and reproductive mutilation.
Oil spills can even destroy the insulation capacity of a marine bird’s feathers or a mammal’s fur, which leads to death by hypothermia. When oil is ingested by these species, it leads to damage of the lungs, liver, and kidneys, followed by death. 



The fishing industry suffers badly when an oil spill occurs. Firstly because the fish are often covered in oil, or have swallowed oil making them poisonous. Also a large number of fish die, decreasing the number of fish that could have possibly been caught.It is also difficult for boats to sail because the oil can damage them and the devices they use it catch the fish
DETERIORATION OF FISH INDUSTRY FISH COVERED IN CRUDE OIL

FIN EROSION

DETERIORATION OF LOCAL INDUSTRY Oil, tar balls, dead fish and birds all get washed up on the shores and the oil slick interferes in activities such as fishing, sailing, swimming etc. The local tourist industry suffers because tourist are not interested in coming to a coastal area where they cannot do the activities as listed above. Industries that reply on clean sea water for routine operations can also suffer because operations have to be stopped for a while for water to be cleaned.

BEACH WAVE WITH CRUDE OIL

An oil spill could have potentially disastrous effects on land. The damage is hard to measure and contain, since it can effect complex ecosystems and spread if introduced to underground water. If the spill is severe it may take the land years to recover, during which time it is toxic to most plants and animals. Effects of oil spill on land include: Soil Degradation
Groundwater Concern
Animals and Microorganism The presence of oil could render fertile land unfit for plant life. This is because it reduces the soil's ability to hold oxygen. Since oxygen is a key element of plant growth and photosynthesis, existing vegetation is prone to suffocation. New plant growth may prove to be difficult, depending on the severity of the contamination. The oil also saturates the ground and acts as a barrier, preventing water from being absorbed, further inhibiting plants from being nourished.
SOIL DEGRADATION INFERTILE LAND CAUSED BY OIL SPILL

GROUNDWATER CONCERN As the oil is being absorbed into the earth, it runs the risk of contaminating underground streams. Since groundwater may flow across a large area, the oil has the potential to spread across a wide region beyond the confines of the original site of the spill. Oil may even come into contact with and contaminate human water supplies.
STREAM POLLUTED WITH CRUDE OIL

ANIMALS AND MICROORGANISM Oil is toxic to many micro-organisms, bacteria and animals that live on and within the land. As it seeps into the ground and comes into contact with minerals, organisms and bacteria it could destroy or compromise these entities.Animals that rely on scent to find their babies or mothers fade away due to the strong scent of the oil. This causes a baby to be rejected and abandoned, leaving the babies to starve and eventually die. Oil can impair a bird's ability to fly, preventing it from foraging or escaping from predators. As they preen, birds may ingest the oil coating their feathers, irritating the digestive tract, altering liver function, and causing kidney damage. Together with their diminished foraging capacity, this can rapidly result in dehydration and metabolic imbalance. Oil can also blind an animal, leaving it defenceless. The ingestion of oil causes dehydration and impairs the digestive process. Animals can be poisoned, and may die from oil entering the lungs or liver.
BIRD COVERED IN CRUDE OIL
PREVENTION OF OIL SPIL Technological Assessment of equipment and procedures for production, transportation and storing of crude oil.
Preparing for spill response through training , inspection, contingency plans and drills.
Security measures such as surveillance should be put in place to avoid sabotage of pipeline
Creating awareness of the dangers of oil spill on the environment (land and sea).
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