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Tsunami 101

This presentation introduces the basic elements of tsunami including how they are generated and what factors influence how big tsunami waves will be. The 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami is used as an example.

Emergency Info BC

on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of Tsunami 101

Tsunami 101
Tsunami generation
90% by earthquakes
10% by landslides (above and below water), volcanos and meteors
Refraction (can wrap around islands/houses)
Coastal orientation (Parallel to EQ rupture means direct impact)
Funelling (more volume forced into smaller area)
Ocean level (higher tide means more inundation)
Friction (less friction means more inundation)
Resonance (if bay length equals wave period)
Duration of rupture (longer means more displacement)
Depth (shallow EQ means more displacement)
Material (sediments usually displace more than hard rock)
Magnitude (at LEAST 7.0)
Earthquake Features
Shoreline Features
500-800 kms/hr in open ocean, yet only slight rise
Slow and grow in shallow
Series of waves, the first is not the largest
Wave action can last for days
5-60 mins normal period (time between waves) for large tsunami
Depth of water (Deeper means more potential energy)
Tsunami History
1700 Cascadia Subduction Zone
1964 Alaska (130 fatalities)
2004 Indonesia (over 200,000 fatalities)
2010 Chile (525 fatalities)
2011 Japan (over 15,000 fatalities)
2012 Haida Gwaii
Thank you, Happy Sailing

Any Questions?

Risk to British Columbia
Land level (earthquake subsidence, river basins, low-lying areas)
Photo: Leonard, NRCan. Report: Lucinda Leonard, Garry Rogers, Stephane Mazzotti - GSC Open File 7201 (2012), download from GEOSCAN
Tide gauge observations courtesy of: Rabinovich, A. DFO/CHS
Haida Gwaii, October 2012
Full transcript