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Transcript of Contemporary Approaches
This school of thought is very different from the others. It studies psychopathology, or abnormal behavior. Its method is the clinical observation of the unconscious.
Sigmund Freud organized information that already existed in the areas of medicine and philosophy, he integrated this knowledge and came up with a method of clinical analysis that cured symptoms and mental illness.
In 1895 Freud goes to Paris to study with a French psychiatrist named Charcot who was trying to cure hysteria by the use of hypnosis. Freud continued his studies of hysteria and stated that there was no organic cause for the symptoms, they were pscyhogenic. He said that the symptoms tried to hide memories that had great emotional content. He later called them repressed memories.
In free association, psychoanalytic patients are invited to relate whatever comes into their minds during the analytic session, and not to censor their thoughts. This technique is intended to help the patient learn more about what he or she thinks and feels, in an atmosphere of non-judgmental curiosity and acceptance.
He believed dreams were a rich source of emotional meaning that had the key for finding the causes of the symptoms presented by the patient.
ways to the subconscious
Organization of the
The conscious mind
includes everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. Freud called this ordinary memory the
The unconscious mind
is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that are outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences.
A lapsus (lapse, slip, error) is an involuntary mistake made while writing or speaking. According to Freud's early psychoanalytic theory, a lapsus represents a missed deed that hides an unconscious desire.
Freud's theory of psychosexual development is one of the best known, but also one of the most controversial. Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving force behind behavior.
Theory of Psychosexual Development
Freud thought that
The Oral Stage
In the first few years of life boys and girls have similar experiences.
The anus becomes the sources of erotic pleasure.
The Anal Stage
1 1/2-3 years
Children discover the pleasure they get from their genitals.
The Phallic Stage
Sexual desires are pushed to the background, and children explore the world and learn new skills.
: process of redirecting sexual sexual impulses into learning/productive tasks.
The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm.
The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests.
This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence.
The Latency Stage
The individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex.
Ideally the person derives much satisfaction from giving pleasure as from receiving it.
Personality development is essentially complete.
This stage begins during puberty but last throughout the rest of a person's life.
Interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage.
If the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm and caring.
The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas.
The Genital Stage
There are stages where the child fixates on a specific body part – the psychic energy focuses
humans basically have what he called an instinctual
He also thought that:
Libido = sex drive
infants, from birth, have a sex drive; we have an
Anxiety or Trauma
problems, neuroses, anxieties
stop nursing early = suspicious, manipulative, untrustworthy or sarcastic attitudes,
It's the child's first experience of not getting what he/she wants.
First conflict: taking the breast away (weaning the child from nursing).
Erotic pleasures are obtained through the mouth, sucking at their mother's breast.
constantly nursed --- perhaps over-nursed = trusting and gullible personalities kids that don't want to grow up.
conflict:toilet training--the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence.
The child may also purposefully attempt to back up their digestive system as a way of depriving the parents, which leads to "anal retentive" personality: stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.
the child sees this stage as a way of either being proud of "creations," which leads to "anal expulsive" personality:messy, wasteful or destructive personality.
When a child begins toilet training, an obsession with the anal region and the act of moving one's bowels emerges. The ego starts developing=control.
Identification with the aggressor
: The boy takes on all his fathers values and moral principles. The girls identifies with the mother and feels her mother's triumphs and failures as her own, and she internalizes the mother's moral code =Super ego
Boys: Oedipus Complex
Girls: Electra Complex
The child becomes a rival for the attention of the parent of the opposite sex. These are unconscious processes.
They become extremely aware of the differences between them and the opposite sex.
Hostile or jealous feelings toward the parent of the same sex.
Psychosexual stages help develop the id, ego and superego
Oral fixation=need to have something in the mouth (smoking, nail biting, overeating, alcoholism)
Scientific study of mental disorder.
Psycho=mind Pathos=suffering or disease
The subject matter of psychology:
the study of the relationship between stimuli and behavior (both stimuli and behavior can be directly measured).
The method of psychology:
To manipulate stimuli and observe the effect upon behavior.
John Watson: Founder of Behaviorism
He belived behaviorism was purely objective.
"Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control
"Introspection forms no essential part of its methods."
He believed that all behavior, even apparent instinctive behavior is the result of conditioning, and it occurs thanks to apropriate stimuli that are present in the environment.
is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior.
John B. Watson
Introduces the concept of reinforcement: a stimulus whose objective is to increase the posibility of a behavior to repeat itself or extinguish itself. Rewards and Punishments.
Sostuvo que toda conducta, aún la que es aparentemente instintiva, es el resultado de condicionamiento y que ocurre gracias a los estímulos apropiados que están presentes en el ambiente.
Definió a la teoría como puramente objetiva.
Develops as a reaction to Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis.
(Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Rollo May)
Described human nature as evolving and self directed.
Humans are not controlled by events in the environment or by unconscious forces. Both serve as background to our internal growth
Emphasizes how each person is unique and has a self concept and a potential to develop fully
(Jean Piaget, Noam Chomsky, Leon Festinger) 1950s
Cognitivists focus on how we process, store, and use information, and how it influences our thinking, language, problem solving, and creativity.
Behavior is more than a response to stimulus, it us influenced by a variety of mental processes, including perceptions, memories, and expectations.