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History of Education

American education through the time periods.
by

Gina Dotson

on 9 June 2013

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Transcript of History of Education

Colonial Period (1642-1776) I. Divided into three regions:
New England
Focused on literacy to prevent large number of uneducated people.

Middle Atlantic
Different views from numerous ethnic and religious groups led to many different schools for both.

Southern
Wealthy children were privately tutored
Poor white children received no formal learning opportunities (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 56.)
Slave children were prohibited from learning to read or write. (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 56.) Town Schools
Mostly in New England Colonies

Parochial and Private Schools
For different ethnic and religious groups of the middle colonies
Wealthy white children in the southern colonies Types of Colonial Schools Benjamin Rush (1745-1813)
Plan included free elementary, free academy, and free college for future leaders to be funded by tax dollars

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
Plan included free elementary for all wards (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 59.)
Poor, but gifted students could attend secondary schools where half of students would become teachers and top ten at each school would go on to college.

Noah Webster (1758-1843)
Argued for an American Language
Author of The American Dictionary

William McGuffey (1800-1873)
Author of five most popular Readers
"Provided the first graded Readers", many of which are still used today (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 60.) Influential People of the National Period Types of Colonial Schools (continued...) Latin Grammar Schools
Boys received college prep for potential professionals or business owners
Curriculum focused on learning the classics (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 57.)

Academies
Secondary level of learning for students not going to college
Curriculum was diversified based on occupational goals of each student

Colleges
For graduates of Latin Grammar Schools
Educated students in more advanced study of the classics Learning Documents of the Colonial Period Hornbook
Students learned the alphabet, the Lord's Prayer, Syllables, words, and sentences through memorization (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 567)

New England Primer
"First American basal reader" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 58.)
Memorization through rote and drill

New Guide to English Tongue
"Combined grammar, spelling, and religious instruction" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 58.) The National Period (1776-1850) Great Documents
The Declaration of Independence
The Bill of Rights
The 1785 Northwest Ordinances
"Reserved the 16th section of 'every township' for the maintenance of public schools" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 58.) More Influential People of the National Period Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827)
Believed education should be "based on the child's natural development" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 61.)

Friedric Froebel (1782-1852)
Developed "Kindergarten" for 3-to-4 year-olds.
"Curriculum based on love, trust, and freedom" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 62.)

Johann Herbart (1776-1841)
German philosopher
Believed education should focus on producing intelligent "good" people with "many interests"(Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 62.)
Steps of instruction: preparation, presentation, association, systemization, application

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
Ideas based on Charles Darwin
Believed only the intelligent people survived, unintelligent and weak individuals disappear (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 63.)
Curriculum focused on what is useful and practical for progress, the sciences. Universal Education
(1820-1900) Monitorial Schools
Teachers taught to bright students, who were used to instruct the other children.
Criticized for using untrained students as teachers.

Common Schools
Led by Horace Mann
The first state board of education (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 64.)
Focused on elementary education, with an emphasis on the three R's
Biggest success was seen on the frontier. Elementary Schools
Added geography, history, science, art, physical education, nature study, music, homemaking, and manual training.

Secondary Schools
Followed elementary level of learning for children ages 14 to 17.
Number of students enrolled increased tremendously from 1900 to 1970

Academies
Replaced the Latin Grammar Schools
Later served as finishing schools for young women after being replaced by high schools.

High Schools
Funded by tax dollars
Became public equal of private secondary schools
Curriculum was diversified
Began offering vocational courses around 1900 Universal Education (continued...) The Transitional Period
(1893-1918) Curriculum unity at all learning levels.
Elementary level should offer two curriculum tracks:
one for high school bound children
one for children not planning on high school
Three major committees were established to help develop curricula Transitional Period (continued...) The Transitional Period (continued...) The Transitional Period (continued...) Judd
Inspired by Darwin
Thought children should be taught how to deal with problems to better prepare them for encounters in the future

Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education
Education for all children (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 76.)


Bobbitt
Increase class size and decreasing teachers' salaries.
Developed guidelines for objectives: eliminate the impractical, emphasize importance, avoid criticized, involve the community, differentiate for all students, sequence by grade level.

Charters
Curriculum should be a "series of goals that students must reach" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 77.) The Committee of Fifteen
Influenced by Charles Eliot (became member of all three committees)
Reduce elementary to 8 years
Establish "special" classes of hygiene, culture, vocal music, and drawing for 1 hour each week
Manual training, sewing, cooking, algebra, and Latin were introduced in seventh and eighth grade (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 70.)

The Committee of Ten
Nine subjects became central to high school education (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 70.)
Four different learning paths:
classical and Latin scientific (for college bound students)
modern languages and English (for students who were not attending college.)

The Committee on College Entrance Requirements
Purpose was to strengthen "the college-preparatory aspect of the high school curriculum" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 72.)
Harris
Believed students should be taught to work with his/her mind

Eliot
Argued for vocational school separate from high school (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 73.)
Thought children should be guided into academic courses and nonacademic courses.

Vocational Education
Aptitude tests were advocated in 1910

Flexner
Modern curriculum with four areas: science, industry, civics, aesthetics

Dewey
Thought subjects could not be placed in a "value hierarchy" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 75.)
Believed traditional subjects like "Greek or Latin were no more valuable than music or art" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 75.) History of American Education Gina Dotson Kilpatrick
Four steps of his methodology: purposing, planning, executing, and judging (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 78.)
Believed that if teachers are wanting to teach a student "to think and plan for himself, then let him make his own plan" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 79.)

The Twenty-Sixth Yearbook
The "first volume criticized traditional education and its emphasis on subject matter, rote learning, drill, and mental discipline" (Ornstein &Hunkins, 2012. p. 79.)
The second volume described the perfect curriculum

Rugg
Advocated for curriculum specialists

Caswell
Believed the goal should be to improve instruction rather than focus on curriculum development The Transitional Period (continued...) Eight-Year Study
Conducted by the Progressive Education Association
Found need for evaluation of student achievement, social factors, teaching-learning processes, and instructional methods

Tyler
Curriculum should emphasize the needs of the learner and prioritize the objectives (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 82.)

Goodlad
Thought teachers should teach half-time and spend the other time interpreting, modifying, and planning (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 83.) The Transitional Period (continued...) Current Focus References

Barger, R.N. n.d. A Monitorial Classroom. [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www3.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/monito~1.jpg

Barger, R.N. n.d. A Page from a New England Primer. [Drawing]. Retrieved from http://www3.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/pur8.jpg

Barger, R.N. n.d. The Cover of Noah Webster's "Blue-back Speller." [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www3.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/spelbook.jpg

Barger, R. N. n.d. The Latin Grammar School. [Painting]. Retrieved from http://www3.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/pur18.jpg

Calumet Regional Archives. 2001. Teaching Life Skills. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/photo_gallery/photo7.html

FCIT. 2013. Puritans. [Sketch]. Retrieved from http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/24700/24766/puritans_24766.htm

Great Harbor Maritime Museum. 1904. Charles W. Eliot, Mount Desert, 1904. [Photograph] Retrieved from http://www.mainememory.net/artifact/21053/

Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum. n.d. McGuffey's First Eclectic Reader. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://hoover.archives.gov/LIW/DeSmet/images/Reader.jpg

Kaestle, C. 2001. The Common School. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/photo_gallery/photo1.html

Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2012). CURRICULUM: foundations, principles, and issues, (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Quotes Temple. 2012. John Dewey Quote on Teaching and Learning. [Photograph] Retrieved fromhttp://www.quotestemple.com/Photos/5660961736/john-dewey-education-quotes-education-is-not-preparation-for-life-education-is

The Library of Congress. 2013. Horace Mann, head-and-shoulders portrait, three-quarters to right. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3c09928/

The National Archives and Records Administration. n.d. The Declaration of Independence. [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_zoom_1.html Tyler's model has become the most common way to create curricula.

Some argue that students should not "have an obligatory curriculum imposed on them" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 86.)

The current field of curriculum is "dynamic and ever changing, incorporating knowledge from other disciplines" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2012. p. 86.) Puritans Latin Grammar School Page from a New England Primer The Declaration of Independence Noah Webster's "Blue-back Speller" Monitorial School Horace Mann Charles Eliot
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