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Richard Nixon-Report Card
Transcript of Richard Nixon-Report Card
Creates Nationalism: C
Selected Service Reform bill ensured that draftees were selected by a lottery system
Clean Air bill mandated that car manufactures would reduce certain pollutants by 90%. first major environmental law in the U.S. to include a provision for citizen suits.
Appointed four justices to the United States Supreme Court
Use of Power: D
"Defeat doesn't finish a man, quit does. A man is not finished when he's defeated. He's finished when he quits." -Richard M. Nixon
Born in California in 1913
37th President of the United States of America
In office from 1969-1974
General Prestige: B
Short Run: (while in office)
Reduced tensions between China and the U.S.S.R. leading to widespread victory in reelection of '72
Presidential Report Card-Cody Robb and Rachel Southward
Reaction to New Situations: C-
Highest Approval (almost 70%)= In January 1973, he announced an accord with North Vietnam to end American involvement in Indochina. His Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger, negotiated disengagement agreements between Israel and its opponents, Egypt and Syria.
Lowest percentage approval (almost 20%)= Nixon's "Watergate" Scandal involved break-ins into the Democratic National Committee and was linked to officials on Nixon's re-election committee. Nixon denied having been involved but courts forced up tape where the president had in fact diverted the investigation. He left office (resigned) short after and with an almost 20% approval rating.
Nixon gained praise as an elder statesman.
He had written multiple books depicting his experience in the public eye and also on foreign policy.
Because of his accomplishments with foreign affairs, his advice and counsel were sought out by many succeeding presidents such as Clinton, Bush Sr., and Reagan.
Some historians still regard him as one of the worst presidents in United States History.
He "unlocked the doors that for a quarter of a century stood between the United States and the People's Republic of China."- Richard Nixon
Warren E. Burger ('69-'86) was Nixon's pick for Chief Justice.
Harry Blackmun ('70-'94)-became one of the most liberal justices on the court and ruled in Roe v. Wade
Lewis Powell Jr. ('72-'87)- was in the Air Force, known as a master of compromise, and drafted Powell Memorandum
William H. Rehnquist ('72-'05)- was appointed Chief Justice by President Reagan and was eight longest serving justice
Nixon faced both democratic majorities in both the House and Congress for both of his terms in office. First term allowed more success but because of Watergate, his second term turned Congress against him
Ex:1 - During his first term, he was able to work efficiently with Congress with issues such as civil rights, environmental issues, and health care. Environmental issues were so successful because this was the among the first attempts at tackling key environmental subjects like pollution.
Ex:2- During his second term, he was disliked by many including congress. Around the time of his resignation, Congress was threatening with impeachment.
During Nixon's presidency, the Vietnam War, '73 oil crisis, desegregation of the south, the continuance of the Cold War, civil wars in Laos and Cambodia took place.
Conflict #1- Vietnam War= The U.S. had been involved with the Vietnam War from '56 to '75. Nixon promised to end the war but decided to attack communist sanctuaries in Cambodia. After bombings between Northern and Southern Vietnam, the Paris Peace Accords(Jan. '73) were signed completely withdrawing U.S. troops.
Conflict #2- Nixon authorized Operation Nickel Grass where the U.S. delivered weapons and supplies to Israel during the Yom Kippur War against the Soviet-supplied Egypt and Syria.
Dedicated $100 million to begin the War on Cancer, which created national cancer centers and antidotes to the deadly disease.
ended the draft, moving the United States military to an all-volunteer force.
proponent of the 26th Amendment, extending the right to vote to 18-20 year olds, lowering the voter age from 21.
Nixon signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty in 1972 with the Soviet Union. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) limited ABM systems used in the defending of area against missile delivered nuclear weapons. The terms of the treaty stated that both parties were limited to two ABM complexes in which each be limited to 100 anti-ballistic missiles. Stood for 30 years. U.S. withdrew from the treaty in June 2002.
Situation #1: Watergate Scandal
The Watergate Scandal began in 1973 and lasted for about 18 months before Nixon became the first president to resign from presidency.
several burglars were arrested inside the office of the Democratic National Committee (DNC), located in the Watergate building in Washington, D.C.
The burglars were connected to President Richard Nixon’s reelection campaign, and they had been caught while attempting to wiretap phones and steal secret documents.
Historians aren't sure whether Nixon knew about it before it happened.
He took steps to cover it up, raising “hush money” for the burglars, trying to stop the FBI from investigating the crime, destroying evidence and firing uncooperative staff members.
After much struggle and court-related arguments and pressure, Nixon finally gave up the tapes, revealing his participation in the scandal.
He resigned in 1974, being faced with impeachment, and worked hard to redeem his name after his resignation.
Situation #2: People's Republic of China
Nixon saw opportunities to improve relations with the Soviet Union and establish relations with the People's Republic of China.
he hoped to use the strengthened relations with Moscow and Beijing as leverage to pressure North Vietnam to end the Cold War—or at least interrupt it —with a settlement
He would play China against the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union against China, and both against North Vietnam.
He and his accomplice, Henry Kissinger worked together. They used the National Security Council staff to concentrate power in the White House
Nationalism is a patriotic feeling, principles, and efforts
Successful Situation #1- In his inauguration speech, Nixon gave hope to a country in chaos "We extend the hand of friendship to all people. To the Soviet people. To the Chinese people. To all the people of the world. And we work toward the goal of an open world, open sky, open cities, open hearts, open minds".
Nixon told the country that he is seeking a positive, interactive, peaceful, and efficient relationship with other countries. He was successful in creating nationalism because he set Americans at ease knowing that peace is in the near future under their new president.
Successful Situation #2- He created nationalism when he won the 1972 election by a landslide. He had accomplished many new feats and policies in his first term as president that the nation had a feeling of improvement. He was successful in creating nationalism because he was able to share the feeling of advancing as a nation and instilling an end to the war.
Q: Can a president expand his power beyond the Constitution?
The President must submit to Congress and follow the Constitution. Anything against the Constitution and Congress could result in impeachment.
Situation #1: He made the first presidential visit to communist China and negotiated the first arms-control treaty with the Soviets. He was successful because he brought peace as a result of his presidency
Success: Bringing Peace
Situation #2: Nixon ended his nation's military involvement in the Vietnam War, which had claimed nearly 60,000 American lives. His huge involvement in ending the war was another act of establishing peace among international borders.
Failure: Disloyalty and Deception
The Watergate Scandal is the biggest event that demonstrates Nixon's inability to get his way. He was involved in the scandal but hid the tapes that were evidence and tried to go against Congress. His presidential powers do not exceed Congress in which case his expanse of power failed at the expense of the rest of his presidential term.
Q: How many executive orders did he issue while in office?
From 1969-1974, President Nixon issued 346 executive orders while in office (247 in 1st term and 99 in 2nd term).
Executive Order 11507
Prevention, control, and abatement of air and water pollution at Federal facilities
Signed: February 4, 1970
Federal Register page and date: 35 FR 2573; February 5, 1970
Supersedes: EO 11282, May 26, 1966; EO 11288, July 2, 1966
Superseded by: EO 11752, December 17, 1973
Executive Order 11762
Delegating to the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs certain authority relating to grants-in-aid to the Republic of the Philippines for medical care and treatment of veterans
Signed: January 17, 1974
Federal Register page and date: 39 FR 2347; January 21, 1974
Failure Situation- The Watergate Scandal of '73 failed to create nationalism. Nixon was discovered to have been involved in break-in to the Democratic National Committee. This failed in creating nationalism because now the nation is not sure if they can put their trust in the President. Because of Watergate, Americans were not sure if they were being told everything in the government