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Hinduism

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sarah fronczak

on 21 March 2017

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Transcript of Hinduism

One of the biggest misconceptions about Hinduism is that Hindus worship 330 million Gods, making Hinduism a polytheistic religion. This is not correct, Hinduism believes in only one God but allows the followers to worship God in many forms; called deities.
GOTTA MINUTE or 6? Finding this Prezi a bit boring?? Then here's a great video..a little Hinduism 101 Folks!!
HINDUISM TIMELINE
 Although Hinduism’s original date and history is not very clear, we know that it started around 2000BCE in India.
 It is said that Hinduism first started with the Indus valley civilization by some nomadic people called Aryan.
 Although most religions come from a special and charismatic leader, Hinduism does not and is simply the “religion of the Indian people”.

GODS OF REINCARNATION
REINCARNATION: THE BELIEF THAT THE INDIVIDUAL SOUL IS REBORN IN A different FORM AFTER DEATH.
Brahma: the creator
Vishnu: the preserver
Shiva: the destroyer/transformer
Ganesh: god of the intellect
Murugan: god of war
Kali: Goddess of time and death
Surva: god of the sun

Karma and Dharma
Dharma is the moral law combined with spiritual discipline that guides one’s life. Hindus consider Dharma the very foundation of life. It means “that which holds” the people of this world and the whole creation. Dharma is the “law of being” without which things cannot exist.

Karma could be both the activities of the body or the mind, irrespective of the consideration whether the performance brings fruition immediately or at a later stage. However, the involuntary or the reflex actions of the body cannot be called karma.

Hinduism is the religion of the majority of people living in India and nearby Nepal. India is the birth place of Hinduism and the most sacred place for Hindus.
Timeline
India is a land of diversity. Many different languages are spoken in India. The subcontinent is shaped like a triangular kite, hanging from the southern side of Asia. There are numbers of core regions including mountain ranges, river valleys, a dry interior plateau, and fertile coastal plains.
Hinduism is the 3rd largest religion in the world today with about 800 million adherents. Hindus believe in a one, all-pervasive Supreme Being who is both immanent and transcendent, both Creator and Unmanifest Reality.
Hindus believe in the divinity of the four Vedas, the world’s most ancient scripture, and venerate the Agamas as equally revealed. These primordial hymns are God’s word and the bedrock of Sanatana Dharma, the eternal religion.
Hindus believe that the universe undergoes endless cycles of creation, preservation and dissolution.
Hindus believe in karma, the law of cause and effect by which each individual creates his own destiny by his thoughts, words and deeds.

2800-2000 BCE Indus Valley civilization.
1200-900 BCE Early Vedic Period – earliest Vedas are compiled.
900-600 BCE Late Vedic period – Brahmanical religion develops, emphasizing ritual and social obligation.
800-300 BCE The 11 major Upanishads are written, which include the ideas of reincarnation and karma.
500BCE – 1000 CE Epics and Puranas are written, reflecting the rise of devotional movements dedicated to Shiva, Bishnu and Devi.

Who created Hinduism?
There is no single creator/founder of Hinduism. Hinduism was not founded as a religion, but is more of a cultural way of living that has flourished.

Brahma
vishnu
shiva
Genesha
Marugan
kali
surva
Creative minds behind the prezi:
Jennifer Davis
Sarah Fronczak
Theodore Rider

The Vedas
The Vedas are the main scriptural text in Hinduism and help people realize four goals:
In the first half of life..
Pursue Material goals
Serving the Gods above and the family and community in the mortal world below
In the second half of life..
Pursue Spiritual goals
Lead contemplative and austere lives and ascend to the highest heavens
These texts are also not man made or god made, rather are revealed to "seers" in meditative states
Hence they are called "shrutis"- the heard ones
Most important of the four vedas and the oldest
Composed in 1500 B.C. and Codified in 600 B.C. and became writing around 300 B.C.
Divided into 10 books which are referred to as the mandalas
1028 hymns of different entities
Contains the famous Gayatri mantra
Yajur Veda
Priestly handbook used in the performances of sacrifices
Divided into two books: Earlier- Black; Older- White
Sama Veda
Consists of chants and melodies to be sung during worship and performance of the yajina
Antharva Veda
Contains hymns, mantras and incantations outside the of the yajina
Rig Veda
Four Parts To The Vedas
First Two Relate to The Performance of Sacrificial Rituals
1. Samhitas: literary collections such as hymns and mantras . They form the Veda Proper
2. Brahmanas: manuals of prayers and rituals for the guiding priests. They tend to explain the Samhitas and contain early stories.
Second Pair Consists of Philosophy
3. Aranyakas: books for hermits and saints.
4. Upanishads: books of philosophy also referred to as the "vedanta"- the conclusion of the Vedas
A Video Explaining the Vedas if you Have Time!
Caste System
Brahmins
The highest of 4 castes in Hinduism
Generally consisting of priests and teachers
Said to have come from Brahma's head
Kshatriyas
This is the second highest caste of 4 in Hinduism
This caste is generally consisting of warriors and rulers
They also manage the government and political order
Said to have come from the arms of Brahma
Vaishyas
This caste is the third highest caste
This class generally consists of farmers, traders, and merchants
The Vaishyas are said to have arisen from the thighs of Brahma
Shudras
The Shudras are the lowest caste in Hinduism
The Shudras is generally made up of labourers
The Shrudas arose from Brahma's feet and did all the menial jobs
Dalits
Dalits translates to "outcaste"
The Dalits are actually outside of the caste system
People treat them as slaves and refuse to even touch them- referred to as "untouchables"
This caste is consisting of street sweepers and latrine cleaners
Want an Easy Break Down of The Caste System? Watch this video!

What Is Globalization?


Globalization refers to an expansion beyond national borders that includes all aspects of human life and culture, but particularly related spheres of business, science and technology. It is the dominant theme of multinational corporations and the world media with its worldwide coverage of the news. We find people of all races, nationalities and religions participating in a global exchange of information, ideas and commodities.

Where do we see these Hindu symbols and beliefs being used today?
Hinduism in Corporate America
In the first decade of the twenty-first century, familiarity of Hinduism among non-Indians drew attention of Wall Street who saw in it the religion's commercial value. What happened next was predictable: American companies seized the language and imagery of Hinduism, put them on products, and sold them for profit.
Avatar-The Sanskrit word avatar literally means "descent" or "incarnation." More precisely, the word refers to one of Vishnu's incarnations. The traditional view is that Vishnu descends or incarnates on Earth when the world is filled with spiritual decadence.
The movie, Avatar, came out in 2009. The title is a misnomer. The movie has nothing to do either with an avatar or with Hinduism!!
"
We see the word "karma" used often, but few recognize where the word originated from.
A google basic search of "karma": a karma free credit score! Talk about popular economic gain!
It is a sanskrit word.

The dictionary defines Karma as: Hinduism, Buddhism. action, seen as bringing upon oneself inevitable results, good or bad, either in this life or in a reincarnation: in Hinduism one of the means of reaching Brahman. (Dictionary.com)

"It is said that the Hindu universe is like a great wishing tree with branches that reach into every soul. In time, every wish we desire can be granted. However the universe also is fundamentally just, and what we get is precisely what we deserve.
There is no such thing as luck or chance in the Hindu Universe. (Bilhartz,2006.p.154)
Yoga can been Americanized in ways that separate it from its roots. Loud music, themed, fast paced classes are offered as a form of basic exercise where its origins have been forgotten.
Hindu's are starting a take back yoga campaign, according to NPR. Click the link for an interview between Sheetal Shah of the Hindu American Foundation, and Virginia Cowen, a yoga instructor and body trainer.
http://www.npr.org/2011/03/24/134822766/Has-Yoga-Strayed-Too-Far-From-Its-Hindu-Roots

"Manusmriti" is the most important and authoritative book on Hindu law and "acknowledges and justifies the caste system as the basis of order and regularity of society
The caste system divides its people into four main categories: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shrudas
Dalits are outside the caaste system on their own
These castes originated from Brahma which is the Hindu god of creation
Each of the groups came from a different part of Brahma's body
The castes dictate everything in religious and social life
Individuals must live within their caste, without sharing or marrying out of their caste
The upper caste's received numerous privileges while the lower caste's were suppressed
It is nearly impossible to elevate into another caste from the one in which you are born in to
A rare exception would be KR Narayanan who later became the president of India
Hinduism
Types of Literature in Hinduism
Hymns: a song or poem used to praise a god
Example: Rig Veda X, 121 verse 10 is a poem praising the God
This verse praises the Father of all beings asking for what the heart desires
Types of Literature in Hinduism
Mantra: a sacred sound used as spiritual conduits, magical chants, or vibrations which produce desired result in an individual
Example: The Hindu Bija Mantra
Used for the worship of the Mother Goddess Kali
Part of the Hindu monistic understanding that while reality manifests itself as many/multiple it is ultimately one.
These mantras are also referred to as
incantations
, which are rhythmically organized words of power that are chanted, spoken or written to accomplish a desired goal by binding spiritual powers
These can also be
chants
or
melodies
depending on how they are said
Scripture in Religious Community
In Hinduism, the goal of the sacred texts are to realize the good from within
The scripture tells individuals there are four paths an individual can take
Moksha is everyone's final destination and people can get their in different ways
First: the path of knowledge requiring rigorous intellectual analysis
Second: path of works demanding observance of rites, ceremonies, and social obligations
Third: path of devotion honoring a god or goddess with private meditations and celebrations involving chanting, singing, and dancing
Fourth: path to self-realization through physiological experiments
The scripture helps individuals realize oneness with Brahma
Hindu's treat scripture with great reverence
Rules strictly govern time, place, and external circumstances
Extreme care is taken in pronunciation of words, which Hindus consider to be sacred in sound and meaning
Scripture is vital for individuals to eliminate all desire
"All is self, and whoever knows himself, knows ultimate reality"
Reference Page
V, J. (n.d.). Mantras in Hinduism. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://www.hinduwebsite.com/vedicsection/mantra.asp
What is India's caste system? (2016, February 25). Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-35650616
V, J. (n.d.). Mantras in Hinduism. Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://www.hinduwebsite.com/vedicsection/mantra.asp
Hinduism. (n.d.). Retrieved March 20, 2017, from http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/socialsciences/ppecorino/phil_of_religion_text/CHAPTER_2_RELIGIONS/Hinduism.htm
The Heart of Hinduism.Retrieved Mach 19, 2017, from,
http://iskconeducationalservices.org/HoHlifestyle/903.htm
Kinnard,J. Religion Library Hinduism: Gender and Sexuality.Retrieved Mach 20, 2017 from http://www.patheos.com/Library/Hinduism/Ethics-Morality-Community/Gender-and-Sexuality.html
Has Yoga Strayed Too Far From Its Hindu Roots? 2011.NPR. retrieved March 20,2017 from http://www.npr.org/2011/03/24/134822766/Has-Yoga-Strayed-Too-Far-From-Its-Hindu-Roots
https://stemit.com/life/@jmetroya/4wxdfh-karma
.Sjoquist, D. P. (2013). Corporate hinduism in america the usurpation of hindu language and culture. Studies on Asia, Series IV, 3(1), 241-251.
http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.gvsu.edu/docview/1355683686?pq-origsite=summon
Social Issues
Poverty
Women
Marriage
Poverty
The affluent world often perceives a simple, rural life as abject poverty, and a sign of social retardation. Hindus traditionally considered it virtuous to voluntarily accept an uncomplicated life for spiritual purposes. With different views on wealth, poverty and success, the West is prone to hastily dismiss India's socio-religious practices as backward and irrelevant. Nonetheless, poverty remains a real problem in many areas.(Heart of Hinduisim, 2016)

Women

Hindu texts stress the importance of stable family ties and valuing and protecting women. Nonetheless, there has been – and there still is – wide abuse. Despite this, the tradition largely rejects the post-modern notion that social justice is achieved simply through promoting material equality.

Sati (when a women commits suicide when her husband dies)was voluntarily performed on the basis of overwhelming affection for the partner and a desire to follow him into the next life. Hindu texts forbid its performance in Kali-yuga, the present age.

Although abortion is seen as a taboo, it is more likely for a female fetus to be aborted than a males.

Marriage

Child marriage
Texts recommend marriage at an early age, particularly for girls in order to protect their chastity. Sexual transgression is considered particularly detrimental to spiritual life. Many so-called child marriages were actually a form of betrothal and marriage was not consummated until the wife was of age.

Polygamy was made illegal in 1952. It was previously considered essential for a limited number of responsible and qualified men to redress the gender imbalance in a society where practically all women were supposed to get married and significant numbers of men remained celibate.

The dowry system was originally a sign of affection by the father for his daughter. The dowry remained the wife's personal property, not that of her husband or his family. This system has been abused by unscrupulous in-laws who terrorise and even murder those brides who don't provide a sufficient dowry.
Besides caste, many other well-advertised social anomalies have developed in India. Since the 19th century, increased recognition of social abuse has promoted ideas of reform. Some Hindus, possibly more inclined to Western thought, opted to purge Hinduism of what they considered dated and superstitious features. Others acknowledged the potential viability of ancient principles and practices which, according to their vision, had become degraded over time. The following are a few of the social practices and phenomena that prompted social reform and had a signicant influence on Hindu lifestyles.
Professor Maodush-Pitzer,

On behalf of Jennifer, Sarah and I, we would like to thank you reading through our presentation. We hope that we covered everything that you were looking for in this presentation. It has been a very great experience working with other people through an online class, as well as it has been an eye opening experience learning so much about a religious tradition we were unfamiliar with. Thank you again and we hope you enjoyed our presentation on
Hinduism!
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