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Anatomy & Physiology: The Respiratory System
Transcript of Anatomy & Physiology: The Respiratory System
moving air in and out of the lungs
filters coarse materials
mix incoming air
Frontal, Maxillary, Sphenoid and Ethmoid Bones
Potential passage for food and air
(AKA - Throat)
divides nasal and oral cavities
Also Known As
The Elephant Man
(AKA - Voice Box or Adam's Apple)
and the bronchial tree
Bronchioles and Alveoli
(Horizontal and Oblique Fissures)
Type I cells - alveolar wall
Type II cells - secrete surfactant
When a mixture of gases is in contact with a liquid, each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to its partial pressure
The amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid also depends upon its solubility
Various gases in air have different solubilities:
Carbon dioxide is the most soluble
Oxygen is 1/20th as soluble as carbon dioxide
Nitrogen is practically insoluble in plasma
About 0.5 to 1 micrometers thick, allowing for efficient gas exchange
Have a total surface area (in males) of about 60 square meters (40 times that of one’s skin)
Thicken if lungs become waterlogged and edematous, whereby gas exchange is inadequate and oxygen deprivation results
Decrease in surface area with emphysema, when walls of adjacent alveoli break through
Molecular oxygen is carried in the blood:
Bound to hemoglobin within red blood cells (~98%)
Dissolved in plasma (~2%)
Each Hb molecule binds four oxygen atoms in a rapid and reversible process
The hemoglobin-oxygen combination is called oxyhemoglobin (HbO )
Hemoglobin that has released oxygen is called reduced/deoxyhemoglobin (HHb)
Oxygen Transport: Role of Hemoglobin
HHb + O
HbO + H
The rate that hemoglobin binds and releases oxygen is regulated by:
Po , temperature, blood pH and Pco
These factors ensure adequate delivery of oxygen to tissue cells
Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in three forms
Dissolved in plasma – 7 to 10%
Chemically bound to hemoglobin – 20% is carried in RBCs as
Bicarbonate ion – 70% is transported as bicarbonate (HCO )
Carbon Dioxide Transport
(at sea level)
~0.04% Carbon Dioxide
760 mmHg at sea level
496 mmHg at 12,000 ft.
3,040 mmHg at -99 ft.
AKA - The Bends
Be sure you can:
Pressure is the key
nerves sensitive to
We do not know everything, yet...
pneumotaxic = stop inhalation
apneustic = stimulate breathing
sugar + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + ATP
diffusion of gases between blood and tissues
diffusion of gases between lungs and blood
Do you see the difference?