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Transcript of Session 3
communicative functions Code switching It is important to: By encouraging learners to: Meaningful communication Communicative tasks Need to develop communication skills for curricular subjects Communication skills are important for expressing ideas both in writing and orally. It also helps learners to work well together. To develop communicative competence (oracy), learners need communicative FUNCTIONS --> purpose for speaking or writing They need examples of these functions asking questions comparing and contrasting to generalise to express ideas to instruct to interpret data to persuade etc... Use of L1 for communication = strategy for learning and teaching --> part of sense making. Use of L1 and target language by both teachers and learners for specific purposes --> code switching. Teachers may chose to help learners understanding the curriculum content by using bilingual techniques. Learners use L1 to justify a point, explain to check understanding or to repeat increase student talking time (STT) and reduce teacher talking time (TTT). We can use BRAINSTORMING at the start or the end of a topic of study. By writing down what we know about it; what we've found out about it; what we want to know. Meaningful communication can be developed through the use of open questions. --> with a range of possible answers. cooperate during task discussion become response partners and give peer feedback revisit content language and communicate it by discussing answers to questions in pairs. share ideas with a partner before/after writing. report back on research found on the Internet prepare poster or Prezi presentation take part in role play or debates do end-of-lesson feedback Before starting, teachers need to: make the purpose and outcome of the communication clear to the learners. identify ground rules and timing assign group roles, for example: Learner A organises any material needed Learner B notes any problems (content/language) Learner C checks all are using the TL Learner D reports back to class After finishing, teachers should: Communicative tasks Give reflection time after the talk: How did we do? How can we improve? Be aware of progression 1 You can see the function keys at the top of the keyboard. Match the examples of learners' language with the purpose of communication A. to hypothesise B. to check information C. to define D. to describe location E. to contrast F. to give an example G. to evaluate work 2. There are some things an employer can't do, such as employ children our age. 3. I think I need to change the rhythm. It's too slow. 4. The sculptures are realistic but the paintings are abstract. 5. I know! A pentagon is a 2-D shape which has five sides. 6. We think the king would have fought the invaders because he wanted all the power. 1. You can see the function key at the top of the keyboard. Correction D. To describe location 2. There are some things an employer can't do, such as employ children our age. F. To give an example 3. I think I need to change the rhythm. It's too slow. G. To evaluate work. 4. The sculptures are realistic but the paintings are abstract. E. To contrast 5. I know! A pentagon is a 2-D shape that has five sides. C. To define 6. We think the king would have fought the invaders because he wanted all the power. A. To hypothesise Code switching 1. The learner didn't know the answer in the TL but understood the question. The teacher consolidated the learning by translating the vocabulary from L1 orally, adding a visual on the board and showing learners the written form on the board. Code switching 2. Here L1 was used to encourage learners to communicate. The learners understood the concept, then had the opportunity to use L1 to express it. Code switching 3. To teach the learners the names of unfamiliar objects used in the science experiment, the teacher wrote them both in the L1 and in the target language. To help you: use the glossary to find definitions for the following concepts: oracy, revisiting, code switching, wait time, response partner. References: The TKT Course CLIL Module (Cambridge University Press) For example Conditions improved as a result of better harvests. The rulers needed educated workers to rule their country. cause and effect? purpose?