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Media and Society Group Project

Paige J

on 28 April 2011

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Transcript of Egypt

Free Speech, Censorship & Journalism Free Speech Censorship Pop Culture, Storytelling
Media Effects Television Public Journalism is not free in Egypt, as the government does have some control over what is published in the papers. Articles critical of the government can lead to prosecution

The Journalists in Egypt are not protected, except when in violent demonstrations earlier this year. In September 2007, Egyptian courts convicted a number of journalists and editors in respect of print articles critical of the Egyptian government.

In the past, many journalists and editors have faced trial due to voicing their own opinions about the government Egypt’s President Hosni Mubarak has used this tactic to control his people for the past 30 years.

Censorship has a key role in all underdeveloped countries, including Egypt. Any cultural materials in any media imported to Egypt must be considered for censorship on arrival.

Newspaper Censorship: Foreign newspapers experience severe censorship with the banning of distribution of any issue if they touch the principles of the country, including political, social or economic principles. Local newspapers have some freedom from censorship because if they make a mistake the law will take further steps towards them.

Electronic Media Censorship: All media imported or produced locally and needing to be distributed must have a license for distribution: one of the main documents to gain the license is censorship approval.
. Mubarak's Power On January 28th 2011, President Mubarak demonstrated outright censorship by disconnecting:

-Cell phones

Mubarak was forced to resign five days later

First nation to completely shut off their people from the Internet While Egypt’s internet was “shut down”, people still managed to get the word out and online.

Attempted to crush citizen journalism

In March, Egypt held its first election on the constitution in history Media consumption in Egypt is very high.
Egyptians consume traditional forms of media such as newspapers as well as newer web-based media. The most highly consumed media form in Egypt.
Consists of state-run stations airing natinal and regional programming.
Programming includes news, sports,serials,movies and cartoons. Lahazat Harega
“Critical Moments”
Music Literature Primetime Serials
Considered the most influential television programming in Egypt.
Cross between Latin American novelas and American mini-series.
Ceneter around personal relationships and difficult circumstances. Music & Revolution
During the 2011 protests in Tahrir Square, soft-rock band Wust El-Balad produced a music video for their song Sout Al Horeya (“Voice of Freedom”).

Egypt’s modern pop tradition began in the 1960s with the development of two genres, Sha’abi and Al’Jeel.
Kryptonite Toys

Egypt's first comic book store opened February 2011. Social Media Social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter were said to have played a major role in the succesful overthrow of Hosni Mubarak Egyptian media remains scared and unready to have an in-depth examination into its own institutions and practices. Editors and publishers speak of freedom and a new way forward, but there as been little evidence of any substantial change.

“What is happening is a great amount of lip service to the future freedoms that Egypt will enjoy,” an American correspondent based in Cairo told the Centre. “But the reality is that all the talk and excitement has not translated into any tangible changes. Editors and investors are still pushing news that they think will sell and bring in funding, instead of taking a hard look at their role in a post-revolution Egypt.”
In March, Egyptian women reported sexual harassment on the streets. Name-calling and dissent met their protest in support of International Women’s Day. Local media did little to cover their plight, again showing that the patriarchal institutions of media and publishing are persisting. Their contacts at newspapers and magazines are falling under their guise. Egypt can have a free media, but editors and reporters must fight for it. They must be willing to take the fight to print. If they do not, and continue to hide behind their fear, Egypt’s media can never be independent.

People thought that the nation was reverting back to the old repressive ways, or was just stagnating. There is a lot of frustration among the people at the slow pace of progress, or at their unfulfilled expectations.

Indonesia is fortunate that many mainstream media outlets are independent enough to counterweigh the partisan media outlets that reflect the business and political interests of their owners.
Diversity and Stereotyping Over 500 newspapers,journals and magazines available in Egypt

98 television stations

59 radio stations

Out of the 18 primary newspapers and periodicals within Egypt the government owns a controlling stock for three major ones appointing editors chosen by the president.
There are two state-run national TVs and six regional channels, but many viewers turn to pan-Arab stations for news.

Egypt Radio Television Union-state-owned
Nile FM -private
Nogoum FM private Nile TV- launched in 1993 and is the first television network to broadcast in Arabic, French, English and Hebrew.

Not only do they present cultural sports and dramatic issues, they also provide viewers with local issues, economic development and news from regions around the world.

Egypt Satellite Channel- started in 1990 and polls show that it is favored by most Egyptians and Arabic viewrs.

This network is also a source viewers tune into for news updates around the world. Among the broadcast programming in Egypt there are four that are privately owned.
Three are:
•Dream TV 1 - a program for children
•Dream TV 2 - a entertainment program.
•Al-Mehwar-owned by a group of businessman; only station to offer news segments, but uses reports from state-owned tv stations

Stereotyping: Antisemitism, Women and Men Diversity
• In 1979 Egypt and Israel declared peace.
• Even though many years have passed Anti-Semitism thrives in cartoons published in Egyptian media.
• Many of the cartoons appear in the press sponsored by the government and are made to delegitimize the presence of Jews as a national entity in the Middle East.
• In many of the cartoons Jews are depicted as dirty, money-hungry world dominators, and are even compared to the Nazis.
• To many anti-Semitism in Egypt is close to anti-Zionism, and Israel is often portrayed as the frontline of a Jewish conspiracy.
Women are usually portrayed negatively in the Egyptian Media
and many other Arab countries.

In many cartoons, women are viewed as obese, cruel and promiscuous.

Due to the recent revolution in Egypt, the women started to portray a different image of themselves. Marching along their male counterparts the women of Egypt showed the world how they also have a voice and a right to freedom. Egyptian men are seen are viewed as violent

With the recent demonstrations,not only did they bring a end to a dictator,they also brought an end to the many stereotypes other countries had about Egyptians.

Branding and Agenda Setting Strategies:

How to know what type of product to produce Opportunity Analysis:

Customers needs not being satisfied
Company can compete effectively
Market opportunities for existing product lines in current or new market
Completely new product in existing market
New product for new target market Rebranding Egypt:

unpreferred travel destination for international travelers stems from unsafe and chaotic reputation After protests began, over 200,000 tourists fled

According to the State Statistics Bureau, this cost the country $178 million in lost revenue

Travel cancellations in Februrary results a further $825 million is estimated to have been lost. COCA-COLA EGYPT:

2011 Dubai Lynx's- Advertiser of the Year

"Global brand using a local voice"

Since 2007, won eight Dubai Lynx awards across several categories Country Brand Index:

Best Country Brand for History
Top 3 of world's Best Country Brand for Arts and Culture
Top 5 for Best Country Brand for Authenticity Target Market: tourism

International Travelers

Egypt received about 14 million international visitors in 2010, generating about $12.5 billion Agenda Setting:

Content Analysis-
studies specific media messages
systematic method of coding and measuring media content

Al-Ahram (national newspaper):
largest publishing house in Egypt
content controlled by Egyptian Ministry of Information Al-Ahram Weekly:
TRAVEL Lack of Coverage:

Ignoring opposing newspaper criticism
Mubarak Government
Children Propaganda, Framing and Public Relations AMBIGUITY AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

According to The Global Public Relations Handbook: Theory, Research and Practice, in Egypt the term "public relations" is a field that is rather misunderstood. PR is often synonymous with hospitality or customer relations. Egyptian public relations is vastly different from its western counterparts. Consider the following...

Public Relations and the Press

The Global Public Relations Handbook also suggests that PR professionals have very little power. Some Egyptian journalists have often described PR departments as having no power and unable to answer questions on their own without having to check with a superiror before answering anything. It can be surmised that this is due to the state media environment. As a result PR professionals are not regarded as good sources nor are heavily relied upon.

Businesses and organizations also disregard the public relations industry as beneficial. Consequently, they neglect to reap the benefits of proper PR. The concept that a public relations professional can help project a favorable public image and maintain that image as a reality, is a concept that is lost in Egypt, as are most western concepts with regard to PR.

Civil unrest in countries typically leads to fluctuations in the economy. In Egypt 10 its economy is generated through tourism. It is estimated that every 1 in 7 Egyptian is dependent on the toruism and hospitality industry for their main source of income.

It is not surprising that due to the revolution, this industry is suffering. The Department of State still has a travel warning (updated as of March 29, 2011) for Egypt and cautions U.S. Citizens to consider the risks in traveling to Egypt. After worlwide coverage on the historic revolution that took place in Tahrir Square--the center of Cairo and not far from resorts and sighntseeing areas, it is only natural for travelers to be weary. Despite the apparent bleak outlook on tourism in Egypt, the Ministry of Tourism is hopeful and has debuted their latest ad campaign for 2012 at ITB Berlin, the world's leading traveling trade show and centered their promotion of travel to Egypt around its triumphant, peaceful revolution. With such slogans as:
Framing the Message
Civil Unrest vs Peaceful Revolution * Welcome to the country of peaceful revolution
* 7,000 years of history and a new era
* Tahrir – a square rocks the world
* Tahrir Square – from Egypt with love
* Online revolution – made in Egypt

Public relations and its art of "spin" is evidently hard at work in the new campaigns that wish to lure tourists back to a country rich in ancient history and bursting with new historic importance that has forever changed its landscape. The message of these ads are inspiring and invite visitors to experience it all first-hand and be part of something unique in Egypt's history. Those messages are framed to encourage their targeted audience (travelers) to reshape the images of civil unrest and danger to the image of peaceful revolution and a new free Egypt.
Hotels in Egypt employ "public relations directors" to act within the capacity of a concierge, making reservations, and acting as the "smiling face" of the business, rather than direct the hotel's image or its exposure to the public as would a proper PR professional.
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