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The Savannah Biome

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Paul Brumlow

on 7 March 2013

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Transcript of The Savannah Biome

The Savannah Biome The Savannah Biome is an ecosystem within itself. The Savannah Biome is actually a big combination of Tropical Grasslands. Tropical Grasslands are grasslands with scattered trees.
Tropical grasslands are located between latitude 0* longitude 5*-15* N or S. This can be found in Central Africa, parts of Mexico, and the Northern part of Australia.
The climate in the tropical grassland is about the same as other grasslands. The tropical grassland has a high average annual temperature of ~70*F. The low average annual temperature is ~ -30*F, although the temperature usually stays between these two. The Savannah has a seasonal drought of 4-6 months out of the year. The rest of the year is the rainy season which can be between 6-8 months. The savannah has a prolonged dry season as well. Average annual rainfall of the Savannah is ~50.8 - 127 cm. There is a large variety of organsims in the Savannah biome. Producers: Baobobs Tree, sagebush, Acacia Tree
Herbavores: Zebras, Antelopes, Giraffes
Omnivores: racoons, Chacma Baboon
Carnivores: Cheetahs, lions
Decomposers: Termites - decompose 90% of all dead organisms in the savannah, Mushrooms, Fire (abiotic, natural decomposer) The Savannah has a high rate of periodic fires. After the rainy season, when the sun is strongest, small drops of excess water magnify sun rays on to dry plants. This causes a fire and soon large areas are devastated by the flames. These are commonly referred to as brush fires. Biotic factors in the Savannah : Grass stalks, Trees (ex. Acacia Tree), animals (ex. giraffe, baboons, lions), insects (ex. Locust, termites, fire ants), bacteria.

Abiotic factors in the Savannah : Fire (ex. Brush Fires), wind (ex. small hills slightly or do not affect the wind temperature), soil (deep and rich with nutrients from dead plant biomass, and dead animal biomass), water (there are not many water sources in the savannah during the dry season. Trees store water from the rainy season for themselves and for other organisms), temperature (the temperature is mild and for most of the year very survivable. The organisms have adapted to survive the extreme conditions of the Savannah as well). PRODUCERS:
Grass Herbivores (primary consumers) ZEBRA The arrows going from each picture are the paths of energy. If the arrow is pointing away from one organism then that organism is eaten by the organism the arrow is pointing to. The grass is being eaten by the three organisms the arrows are pointing to from the grass. TERMITES Antelope These three species are all competing for the grass. This competition is called intra-specific competition. The species are also competing within their own species for the grass. This competition is called inter-specific competition. These white arrows show the secondary consumers This red arrow shows a decomposer, who acts as a secondary consumer when this Zebra dies. The Baboon is an Omnivore. The baboon can and will eat a variety of insects and fruits. Mushrooms are common decomposers all over the world. Mushrooms in the Savannah can be found on many trees and around dead wildlife or plant life. LIONS cheetahs The baboon can be eaten by a lion or cheetah. These brown lines are the lines to tertiary consumers. The lion and the Cheetah can be both secondary and tertiary consumers. This food web only goes to the third trophic level. There are many other organisms in the Savannah and larger food webs can be designed. The food webs usually do not exceed the 5th trophic level. The lion in this case is at the top of the food chain. The only organism that would surpass this is the Human race. The Trophic Energy Pyramid Producers
Autotrophs make up this trophic level. These organisms make their own food by photosynthesis. Primary Consumers
This trophic level is made up of herbivorous animals and omnivores. Secondary Consumers
This trophic level is made up of carnivorous animals and omnivores. These animals eat the primary consumers for energy. Tertiary Consumers
These consumers eat the secondary
consumers. Omnivores and carnivores make up this level. The energy is transferred to each trophic level through the consumption of the lower level, except the way producers get their food. Not all of the energy in each organism is transferred. 90% of the energy is used for the organism to just survive. The other 10% is available for transfer to another organism. The energy pyramid is an easier example to use when explaining the transfer of energy, than that of a food web. Predator - Prey relationships are crucial for a ecosystem to grow and maintain stable levels. The zebra, for example, are the prey to the lions. This relationship helps keep the ecosystem and populations stable. The lions are K-strategists. This means that the lions eat and reproduce whenever and as many times as they want. Growth and development of these k-strategists is very slow though. This balances out the population rate of them. The opposite would be r-startegists. R-strategists reproduce usually once, and have very fast growth and deveoplment. They have short lifespans though. This can be seen in dung beetles that roam the Savannah. On the topic of relationships, there are three that are found everywhere.

Mutualism - when two organisms of different species interact and are both befitted. An example would be the oxpecker and the Rhino. The oxpeck gets ticks and bugs off the rhino to clean the rhino, and the oxpecker gets a free meal. Commensalism - when two organisms of different species interact and one is benefited and one is unaffected. Baboons take shelter in trees, yet provide nothing for the tree itself. Parasitism - when two organism of different species interact and one is harmed while the other is benefited. Ticks suck the blood from elephants grazing. The elephants lose blood and the ticks get a meal. Density dependent factors:
density dependent factors require a population and a number of organisms in the population. These factors affect the population size of an ecosystem. competition, predation, and disease affect the population size. If a large population is clumped together then disease will spread quickly, possibly killing a large majority of the population. Density independent factors:
These factors do not require a population. These factors will occur whether there is a large population or not. Storms, fires, and floods are examples of these factors. The most common is fire and lightning storms in the Savannah. There is no primary succession in the Savannah, life is found practically everywhere. Biomass is the weight of an organism without water weight. Savannah Grass 1000 kg 100 kg Zebra Lion Biomass Pyramid 10 kg As you can see the kg of each organism decreases. The energy from each organsim below only goes up 10%. That energy can only 10 kg of another population. If the lions were at 100 kg and ate all of the zebra, then the lion population would starve from eating all of their food. The Savannahs are located in mostly under-developed nation. After constant research, i have exhausted all resources and come to the conclusion that biomagnification is not present in the Savannah Biome. There is little water for toxins to spread and continue down the food chain. This is the biggest factor contributing to my conclusion. co2 ommisions photosynthesis cellular
respiration fossil fuels
(storage of co2) co2 cycle The Water Cycle The only co2 ommisions in the Savannah are ones from car exhaust, from tours. condesation percipatation collection evaporation Uptake of water by organism Death of an organism Nitrogen Cycle The bacteria in the soil breaks down nitrogen in the atmosphere so that the plants can use the nitrogen. This process is called nitrification. This would include grass and trees in the biome. These are the most abundant types of plant in the Savannah. The Savannah has large biodeversity. Mant species of organisms in habit the tropical grasslands. Zebras, elephants, warthogs, and lions are a few examples of the animals that roam the dry land. The Boabon tree, sagebrush, and the jackalberry tree are a few species of plants that call the savannah their home as well. Air pollution is not a big concern in the Savannah. The only air pollution that would be found is the co2 emitted from jeeps as they give tours to people. Pollution Free!! Acid rain does not affect the Savannah in a large way either. If Acid rain does fall, it may kill some of the grass, but most organisms can cope with it very well. Climate change is not an uncommon thing in the Savannah. During the day it can be very hot, and during the night it can be somewhat very cold. The climate changes frequently and organisms have adapted to cope with such problems. Water pollution also produces little to no threat. There is very little water in the savannah anyways. If the water is polluted it will dry up before it can cause any harmful damage. The only non-native species that could HARM the savannah would be the different speces of the Human Race. Most other organisms that are not native would either not affect the Savannah, or would perish from the climate change. Other things that could HARM the Savannah other than other species invading, would be natural disasters and the building of industries on its plains. Thank You For Your Time
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