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Transcript of Education
A global issue
WHat is the problem with canadian education?
High post-secondary school expenses
Why is education so important?
Education has been
The Cost of Post-Secondary Education: Statistics
Lack of Motivation
Lack of motivation for students
Current federal student debt is at over $15 billion, not including provincial or private debt (CCPA, 2015).
This makes Canadian youth the most indebted generation in Canada's history (CCPA, 2015).
For a child born in 2013, their first year of university could cost up to $28,870 (CFS, 2012).
In 2014-15, university tuition fees in Canada increased 3.3% to an average of nearly $6,000 (CCPA, 2015).
The total average undergraduate fees increased to $6,780 (CCPA, 2015)
According to the Canadian Federation of Students, average student debt is $27,000 (Sagan, 2014).
Why is the Cost of Post-Secondary Education so High?
Post- Secondary Education
High Student Populations:
According to Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, enrollment in Universities is higher than it has ever been. In 2011, enrollment surpassed 1 million students for the first time in Canadian history.
Not only do students have to pay for tuition, they also have to pay for textbooks, housing, and food. The average cost of textbooks and course materials for a student in Canada is $500-$1,000 (The Globe and Mail, 2012).
By 2016-17, university tuition fees will have tripled since 1990-91, after inflation (CFS, 2012).
Lack of Governmental Assistance:
The government pays 60% of each student's total education costs for one year, and the student pays 40%. This is high compared to 1979, when the government paid for 88% of the total costs (The Globe and Mail, 2012).
of Having High Post-Secondary Education Costs
There is high student debt for students who do go to university.
50% of Canadians have to borrow money to pay for post-secondary education expenses (Leong, 2014).
30% of medical students expect to graduate with over $100,000 in student debt (Burley, 2015).
"Those with student debt have less assets, fewer net worth, and are less likely to have savings or assets compared to debt-free peers" (Burley, 2015). .
Many students don't attend post-secondary schools because they can't afford it.
1/4 of all Canadian students who do not attend post-secondary state financial issues as their primary reason for not enrolling (Burley, 2014).
It is more difficult to find jobs without a post-secondary degree. According to a study done by the BC government, 35% of all new job openings will require university-level education by 2020. 42% will require college or trades certificates (Burley, 2014).
Those without a post-secondary degree earn less. In 2011, the weekly wages of a male bachelor degree holder were 37% higher than a male high school graduate. For women, the gap was 55% (Finlayson, 2013).
Is there a solution?
Restructure the entire student loan system, in order to allow post-graduate students an equal opportunity to thrive economically.
There are many opinions on how to solve this post-secondary education financial crisis. The following are solutions provided by the Canadian Federation of Students, 2014:
Use the money that is currently being spent on the RSP's and tuition credits to provide more need-based grants through the Canadian Student Grants Program.
Create a federal post-secondary education act, to further address the roots of the problem.
51% of Canadians aged 20-29 still live at home with their parents (Dreamfilm Productions, 2013).
The primary reasons are poor employment opportunities, high cost of housing, and student debt (Dreamfilm Productions, 2013).
Higher student debt prevents post-graduate students from achieving financial security. Even if they are able to find a job after post-secondary, a large portion of their income goes towards paying off their student debt. This prevents them from being able to leave their parent's homes.
This test has a different name in each province. In Ontario, this test is titled Ontario's Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO). In Alberta, the test is called the Provincial Achievement Test.
Standardized testing is completed in every province. It usually consists of written and multiple choice math, reading and writing questions given to all students in a certain grade.
The purpose of this test is to measure student's comprehension of certain subjects.
However, standardized testing is negatively affecting Canadian students.
What is the problem with standardized testing?
Standardized testing is often used for political gain. Politicians use the results of standardized tests to demonstrate that their policies are effective.
Standardization interferes with differentiation.
Forces teachers to "teach to the test".
Places stress and pressure on students.
As of 2012, 32 million primary school children repeated a grade, and 31 million children dropped out of school.
As reported by dosomething.org
In South and West Asia, 13.54 million children leave school before completing their primary education. In the Sahara, this number is 11.07 million.
In 2010, 61 million primary aged children were not enrolled in school according to UNESCO.
53% of children around the world who aren't in school are girls, and women constitute 2/3 of all illiterate people in the world (dosomething.org, 2015).
Africa has areas with literacy rates of less than 50% among children aged 18 and younger.
Only 25 percent of countries are spending what they need to deliver quality education.
Education received less than 2% of innovative financing from the world bank between 2000 and 2008.
1 in 5 adults in the developing world - nearly 862 million people- can't read or write.
The Statistics for Women
Illiteracy is the highest among women. Illiteracy rates for women exceed 70% in over 20 developing countries (Academic Exchange, 2014).
Globally, 65 million girls aren't in school (ABC News, 2013)
In 2012, there were 3,600 documented attacks on education, including violence, torture and intimidation against children and teachers, resulting in death or serious injuries, the shelling and bombing of schools and the recruitment of school-age children by armed groups. (ABC News, 2013)
60% of all the young people between the ages of 15 and 24 who cannot read or write are women (ABC News, 2013).
Globally, nearly 1 in 5 girls of lower secondary school age is out of school (International Plan, 2015).
An extra year of secondary school can increase a girl’s potential income by 15 to 25% (International Plan, 2015).
A girl with an extra year of education can earn 20% more as an adult. (ABC News, 2013).
Increased quality of life
Girls with eight years of education are four times less likely to marry as children (ABC News, 2013).
A child born to a mother who can read and write is 50 percent more likely to survive past the age of 5 (UNESCO, 2015).
Each extra year of a mother’s schooling reduces the probability of infant mortality by 5% - 10% (UNESCO, 2015).
Case Study: Malala
Barriers to Education
Many children who live in poverty cannot afford to attend school, or need to work.
Females are less likely to attend school than males.
Lack of Resources
This can include lack of human resources (such as teachers) or lack of financial resources.
Exclusion of Children with Disabilities
Around the world, 93 million children with disabilities are not allowed access to school (UNESCO, 2015).
In 2011, half of the world's out-of-school children were living in countries affected by conflicts such as war (UNESCO, 2015).
Malala Yousafzai is a young woman who used to live in Pakistan under the rule of the Taliban. When she was eleven years old, she posted a diary online that chronicled her longing to remain in school and receive an education, despite the discouragement of the Taliban. In October of 2012, a militant boarded her school bus and shot her in the head. Miraculously, she survived after surgery in Pakistan and further operations in the UK. She is now a global advocate for education for all children, especially girls. In 2013, she became the youngest person to ever receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
One of the greatest problems facing Canadian students today is lack of motivation. In New Brunswick, 45% of students missed 10% of their classes in 2010 (Bennett, 2010). According to a recent survey by Get Schooled, at least 7 million students miss 18 or more school days each year (Azuz, 2012). For some students with financial responsibilities, this is a necessity. However, it is believed that the majority of students who skip classes in high school do so because they are bored, want to spend time with their friends, or don't see any reason to attend school. These students believe that attending classes
won't help them with their careers later on in life.
Effect of Skipping for Canadian Students
Skipping class greatly influences students' performances in school. There are direct correlations between skipping class and decreased grade percentages. Students who skip at least 10 days of school are also 20% less likely to receive a high school diploma, and 25% less likely to receive a higher education (Azuz, 2012).
Is There A Solution?
According to the Get Schooled survey, students would be more likely to attend school if:
They received encouragement from their teachers, parents, and other people they felt personal connections to.
They could see a "clear connection" between school classes and future careers
They understood the consequences better.
In 2013, Manitoba started a new campaign entitled Everybody in School Every Day. This campaign involves parent councils in their effort to find new ways to encourage students to go to school.
Ontario created a law in 2006 that required teenagers to stay in school until they were 18 in order to keep their driving privileges (The Canadian Press, 2006).
Some schools, such as Eastern Commerce Collegiate Institute in Toronto, have adopted later start times after a study proved that teenagers focused better in the afternoon than the morning. Eastern now runs from 10 a.m. - 4 p.m., and is believed to be the latest-starting school in North America. Principal Chan reported that attendance rates had drastically improved ever since the switch was made (Rushowy, 2013). Teachers agree that students are more relaxed and alert in the mornings, and have a more positive attitude towards learning. Chan believes this is due to the fact that Eastern students are 2.5 times more likely to get the required nine hours of sleep each night (Rushowy, 2013).
Case Study: Eastern Commerce Collegiate Institute
Completing some form of education and leaving their parents' home are two of the five important factors that enable young people to make the transition to adulthood. Failing to achieve these can prevent young people from fully progressing from the youth stage. It also prevents middle-aged parents from their transition into retired life.
Value and Alienation
Karl Marx examined economic crises and their impact on individuals within a society. He concluded that the more highly skilled a person is, the higher the income, and the greater the importance in the community, which then leads to social benefits and the social belief that the person is more valuable compared to the general population. However, individuals who are not able to attend post-secondary school may not have as many skills in comparison to those who do acquire their post-secondary degrees. This can lead to decreased income, less
importance in the community, a
lack of social benefits, and a
belief that the individual is less
valuable compared to the general
Effect on Students
Erik Erikson and the Psychosocial Development Theory
Erik Erikson's theories were based off of the idea that the primary motivation for human behaviour was social affiliation with others. According to his Psychosocial Development Theory, there are several stages of development in the life cycle that pose a challenge and a crisis that the individual must overcome. One of these stages is Industry versus Inferiority.
In the Industry vs. Inferiority stage, intellectual curiosity is at its highest. If a child feels incompetent, he or she may feel inferior.
This is the time when children in Canada first begin to take standardized tests, which label students as above, at or below the national standard. Students who are labelled below the standard may feel incompetent, which leads to a sense of inferiority and an inability to completely develop a personal identity.
Effect on Students, Continued
Cooley's Looking-Glass Self
Sociologist Charles Cooley's looking-glass theory addresses how identity and personality are created through social interaction. There are three components to this theory:
1. We envision how we appear to others
2. We envision the judgement of that appearance
3. Sense of self develops through this interaction
Students who are labelled as "below average" by these standardized tests may experience the stigma attached to this label. They may:
1. Believe that they appear "stupid" to others
2. Envision the negative judgement of peers
3. Develop a low self-esteem
Standardized tests give labels to students that are internalized and influence the formation of their identity.
Lack of Motivation
Another possible reason why so many students skip class is cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is unease with the predominant group action or attitude. According to Leon Festinger and J. Merrill Carlsmith, individuals will consciously change their actions or behaviours to avoid conflict with the group. When an individual experiences cognitive dissonance, what the group does is is opposite to his or her beliefs. The only way to overcome this dissonance is to either change your attitudes, or change your behaviour to make it consistent with your attitudes.
Lack of Motivation
Students with friends who skip class experience cognitive dissonance. Although they themselves may not want to miss class, their predominate group of friends have an opposite attitude. The individual may then choose to change their attitude and avoid conflict, instead of going to class.
Education for All Movement
Education for All (EFA) is a global effort to provide quality basic education for all children, youth, and adults. 164 governments pledged to reach six EFA goals by 2015 at the World Education Forum. Development agents, the private sector, governments and civil society are all working together to reach these goals. The six goals are:
Expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education.
Ensuring that by 2015 all children have access to, and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality.
Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmes.
Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults.
Eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015.
Improving all aspects of the quality of education so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills.
According to the UNESCO institute for statistics, the world needs to:
Create 1.7 million additional primary teaching positions by 2015 to achieve universal primary education (UPE)
Replace 5.1 million teachers who will leave the profession
Hire a total of 6.8 million teachers to provide for every child’s right to primary education by the end of 2015.
The Global Partnership for Education
The Global Partnership for Education (GPE) is
an institution dedicated to providing quality education for primary and secondary
school-aged children across the world,
prioritizing the poorest and most vulnerable.
22.5 million more children are in primary school since 2003 with help from GPE partners.
300,000 teachers were trained in GPE partner countries since 2004.
$4.3 billion in grants have been allocated to education by GPE since 2003.
50 million textbooks have been dsistributed in GPE partner countries since 2004.
Post-secondary is extremely expensive. This causes many students to have outstanding student debt, and even prevents underprivileged students from attending school. Students who do not attend post-secondary school have lower self-esteem and are affected by Karl Marx's Theory of Value and Alienation. Students who do attend post-secondary school are left with student debt and often experience delayed transitions.
Standardized testing places pressure on students, lead to stress, and take focus away from individual strengths and weaknesses. It also negatively impacts the esteem and sense of identity of students. Based on Erikson's Psychosocial Development Theory and George Cooley's Looking Glass theory, the end result is likely to be feelings of inferiority for some students. Standardized testing is a huge problem in the Canadian education system.
This video explains the importance of educating girls and women. Please watch the full video.
This video explains the importance of education and the lack of access to education for children around the world. It also mentions the efforts of the Adra Organization regarding global education. Please watch from the beginning to 1:30.
Standardized testing is also difficult for students who do not speak English as their first language. Please watch this full video of a slam poet describing the difficulties of standardized testing for ESL students.
Q: What do you think is the greatest challenge facing students today?
i. Students are required to maintain fantastic grades, be involved with so many activities as to be the best when applying for schools, and work part time jobs to help pay for education.
Q: How do you motivate your students to become active participants in your classroom?
a. I attempt to establish a personal relationship with them first to make them feel comfortable.
b. I set out the “rules” of respect within my classroom.
Q: What are the most common barriers you see to academic progress for students?
a. Drive and determination. I have not been teaching long but I can tell instantly from the first assignment if students have drive (going above and beyond on an assignment).
Q: Do you believe post-secondary education costs are high?
a. It is but it is cheaper than our southern counterparts.
The following interview was conducted with Mrs. E.Smith, a secondary-school teacher of Challenge and Change and Nutrition.
Interview questions, continued
Q. Do you believe there is a way for post-secondary education costs to be reduced? If so, what is your proposed solution?
a. Community Service/Volunteer. –So many hours or roles == less tuition.
Q: Do you believe there is a lack of motivation for many students in the educational system?
Q. Why do these students have a lack of motivation?
a. They are grade driven or if they know they cannot achieve the grade that others do they give up.
Q: Is there a solution to this problem? How can the educational system and the teachers and administrators within it help students to become motivated and invested in learning?
a. I attempt motivation through positivity and non-traditional assessment.
b. We need BRAIN BREAKS -–maybe a week around MIDTERMS That NO assessments are handed out or due.
Lack of Motivation
Lack of Motivation
There are many barriers to education around the world, including conflict, lack of human resources, and lack of funding. However, education is immensely important, and should be provided to all children and youth around the world. There are many organizations attempting to provide quality education, but they have not yet reached their ultimate goal of educating everyone.
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Johnson, Tim. "The Future of Standardized Testing in Canada." CanadianLiving.com. Canadian Living, 11 Aug. 2014. Web. 8 June 2015. <http://www.canadianliving.com/relationships/family_connections/the_future_of_standardized_testing_in_canada.php>.
"Key Results." Global Partnership for Education. Global Partnership for Education, 2015. Web. 7 June 2015. <http://www.globalpartnership.org/key-results>.
Press, The Canadian. "Truant Teens Risk Losing Driver's Licence." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 13 Dec. 2006. Web. 8 June 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/truant-teens-risk-losing-driver-s-licence-1.603393>.
"Province Hopes to Lower Student Truancy Rate." Winnipeg Free Press. Winnipeg Free Press, 03 Aug. 2013. Web. 10 June 2015. <http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/Province-hopes-to-lower-student-truancy-rate-196314901.html>.
Rushowy, Kristin. "Toronto’s Late-start High School Says Absenteeism Down, Alertness up." Thestar.com. Toronto Star, 9 May 2013. Web. 10 June 2015. <http://www.thestar.com/yourtoronto/education/2013/05/09/torontos_latestart_high_school_says_absenteeism_down_alertness_up.html>.
Sagan, Aleksandra. "Average Student Debt Difficult to Pay Off, Delays Life Milestones." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 11 Mar. 2014. Web. 8 June 2015. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/average-student-debt-difficult-to-pay-off-delays-life-milestones-1.2534974>.
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Standardized tests don't value diversity in cultural backgrounds.
Tests create "winners" and "losers".
Tests only measure math and literacy skills.
Tests favour those with socio-economic advantages.
As reported by dosomething.org