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Titan and Hydro
Transcript of Titan and Hydro
The world's newest polymers
Garcia, J. M.; Jones, G. O.; Virwani, K.; McCloskey, B. D.; Boday, D. J.; ter Huurne, G. M.; Horn, H. W.; Coady, D. J.; Bintaleb, A. M.; Alabdulrahman, A. M. S.; Alsewailem, F.; Almegren, H. A. A.; Hedrick, J. L. Recyclable, Strong Thermosets and Organogels via Paraformaldehyde Condensation with Diamines.
732-735. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6185/732.full (accessed Sept 24, 2014)
Long, T. E. Toward Recyclable Thermosets.
, 706-707. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6185/706.full (accessed Sept 24, 2014)
Szondy, D. IBM Discovers First New Class of Polymers in Decades. http://www.gizmag.com/ibm-polymer-discovery-plastic/32088/ (accessed Sept 24, 2014)
Coldewey, D. Lab Accident Yields Ultra-Strong Material That Recycles Cleanly.
, New York
http://www.nbcnews.com/tech/innovation/lab-accident-yields-ultra-strong-material-recycles-cleanly-n105686 (accessed Sept 24, 2014)
Markoff, J. Error at IBM Lab Finds New Family of Materials.
New York Times,
. pp B6. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/16/science/error-leads-ibm-researchers-to-a-new-family-of-materials.html?_r=0 (accesssed Sept 24, 2014)
Wogan, T. Polymer Sets New Self-Healing Record. http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2014/05/polymer-sets-new-self-healing-record (accessed Sept 24, 2014)
This background image is taken from the last reference listed in the reference section. This background image is actually not the Hydro polymer but a different polymer developed by the University of Illinois that demonstrates self-healing.
It's called HDCN, or Hemiaminal Dynamic Covalent Networks, officially. (Hydro)
Titan is a specialized HDCN. It's Polyhexhydrotriazine, or PHT.
First discovered at IBM Almaden Research Lab in San Jose, CA. in January 2014.
Monomer is a diamine (2 NH2 groups in ODA) attached to stoichiometric paraformaldehyde.
No declared chemical formula.
Currently no documented uses. Synthesized.
Garcia, et al.
Structure of "Hydro" (HDCN)
NH2 (amine) functional group on the backbone as connection points for the triangle geometry
This geometry allows for highly propagated cross-linking in a branched pattern.
Always plasticized with NMP (N-methyl pyrrolidone) which has a stabilizing or stiffening effect.
The chains are randomly oriented.
This polymerization is described as polycondensation.
Definitely a copolymer. Possibly block or random.
It is an anomaly among thermoset polymers.
Structure of "Titan" (PHT)
Essentially the same as HDCN
Undergoes chemical restructuring and replasticizing from the original HDCN formed.
Both PHT and HDCN are soluble in strong acid solutions like sulfuric acid.
Plasticizing at 200° C has a hardening effect on the PHT.
One less hydroxyl but much better at cross-linking because it now has radial symmetry.
Purity analysis (to separate both) includes IR signal observation and gel permeation chromatography
Synthesis of These
Use of computers to narrow the search for chemical pathways.
Combine NMP, ODA, and paraformaldehyde at 50°C for HDCN and at 200°C with water for PHT.
Environmental impact shockingly low. Low energy usage and polymers are recyclable in cheap sulfuric acid.
many chemically stable thermoset polymers are stuck as they are. Titan and Hydro are reusable.
Thermally stable network.
Titan has high mechanical strength like bone, and enhancable durability with nanofiber additives.
resistance to solvents.
Hydro has the ability to self-heal.
Hydro can be combined with adhesives or gap-filling technology.
Long, Timothy E.
Still not on the market.
Can be brittle
Other plastics like kevlar are stronger.
Must be used in combination with other polymers for maximum effect.