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Chapter 7: Public Personnel Administration and Human Resourc
Transcript of Chapter 7: Public Personnel Administration and Human Resourc
The Personnel Practices have led to
predominant values in the approach to government.
The policies, processes, and procedures designed to recruit, train, and promote the men and women who manage government agencies
Evolution of Public Administration
1. The quest for strong executive leadership
2.The desire for a politically neutral, competent public service
3. The belief that the composition of the public should generally mirror the demographic composition of of the american society.
1789 - Present
The evolution of public Administration came about through the development of the personnel functions and specific practices that was related to the changes that were taking place in public adminsration and society. This evolution took place in SEVEN major phases.
1. Government by Gentleman (1789-1829)
2. Government by Common Man (1829-1883)
3. Government by the Good (1883-1906)
4. Government by the Efficient (1906-1937)
5. Government by Administrators (1937-1955)
6. Government by Professionals (1955-1995)
7. Government by Citizens, Experts, and Results (1995-Present)
Government by Gentleman (1789-1829)
Government by Common Man (1829-1883)
Government by the Good (1883-1906)
Government by the Efficient (1906-1937)
Government by Administrators (1937-1955)
Government by Professionals (1955-1995)
Government by Citizens, Experts, and Results (1995-Present)
Reflected the powerful influence of the American Quasi-Aristocracy on all politics.
Political participation was limited and nepotism was widespread.
Positions were filled according to merit appointment and a blend of patronage.
Entry was limited largely to the gentry of American Society (often meant white , educated, landowners)
Nepotism: the form of favoritism based on hiring family members or relatives
This era resulted from a movement toward a more egalitarian political system.
President Andrew Jackson (1829-1837), commonly associated with this populist era, brought a full-scale spoils system to Washington
Jobs were offered to those with the "right" political loyalties
The early version of today's populist politics (
) supported the "little people" against those with wealth, title, education, and political power.
There was a catalyst that resulted in the creation of
Civil Service (Pendleton) Act
Reformers hoped that the Pendleton Act would reduce the extensive personnel turnover at each change of presidential administrations
egalitarian: philosophical concept that stresses individual equality in political, social, economic and other relations
Civil Service (Pendleton) Act: established job-related competence as the primary basis for filling national government jobs
This era focused on elimination of corruption in hiring practices and equality of access to competitive entrance examinations.
This period was marked by self-conscious egalitarianism and idealistic changes in public personnel administration
The successful drive for a merit system had to translated into workable day-to-day arrangements.
the new civil service was to open to anyone who could pass the competitive entrance examinations.
Civil Service Commission insulate new personnel system against political pressures from congress and the white house.
This era was characterized by maintainence of the merit system and of political neutrality and b the pursuit of management efficiency.
Efficency was major conceptual emphasis within a package of social values that included goodness, merit, morality, neutrality, and science.
In 1933 President Roosevelt began to involve agencies in planning and managing new programs, leading to basic changes in the role of govenment in American society.
The evolutionary period saw the development of an activist political role for public service.
In 1939 the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) was founded, and efforts were made to upgrade the education level of the bureaucracy to ensure that educational preparation counted for something in obtaining national government employment.
issued in 1937 called on the president to assume greater responsibility and authority for directing executive-branch activities and for the centralization and consolation of responsibility throughout the executive branch.
The report of the
Second Hoover Commission
to President Eisenhower in 1955 reccommended that a "Senior Civil Service" be established, comprised about three thousand upper-level career executives serving in administrative positions.
Was a period of greater concern for recruiting, testing generalized skills of jobs of job applicants, and meeting the challenges of, as well as opportunities for , increased professionalism in the public service.
The Federal Service Entrance Examination (FSEE) was established in 1955, and was designed to provide a single point of entry into the US civil service; make it possible for public servants to transfer more easily from one agency to another.
Professionalism has become widespread in the public service, so that the career needs od individuals within their professions conflict with the traditional emphasis on the administrative job itself.
The incrasing power of various professions becomes a force to be reckoned with in the administrative process.
Driven by changes in technology, such as e-government facilitated by the internet, and calls for increased accountability, performance, and minority participation.
Adoption by government of information technology with the
Electronic Government Act of 2002
allowing greater numbers of citizens direct access via World Wide Web portals; one-stop customer-centered shopping for public services.
State-Sponsored websites and adoption of e-government allow citizen access to wider range of information
Government agencies become more market-driven and results-oriented; citizen relationship management recognized a legitimate function of government.
Increased concerns about privacy and protection of individual records.
Electronic Government Act of 2002: designed to expand the use of the internet and computer resources to dekliver government services and to make government more citizen-centered, and market-oriented.
Merit VS. Patronage
There has been an ongoing debate between great political minds about what exactly the differences betweeen Merit Systems and Patronage Systems are.
Merit judges what you know, whereas patronage is more interested in whom you know and you can help politically.
Emphasize Competence related to the job performed
Offers continuity and stability in personnel
In the national Government over 90% of all employees are cover by this system.
Middle- and upper-class citizens favor this system mostly because they are the main "beneficiaries"
Favors political loyalties and connections
Permits a chief executive to select loyal subordinates
Judgements are based on
, which are the standards for making personnel judgments based on an individual's demonstrated, job-related comptence.
Collective Bargaining and
in the Public sector
What is Collective Bargaining?
Formalized process of negotiation between management and labor.
(labor-management relations) business involving the negotiation over pay, working conditions, and benefits.
Collective Bargaining as it relates to the Public Sector.
Milakovich & Gordon state that Labor Management Relations suggests Collective Bargaining is essential in the interaction of managers and employees.
With the employer/employee relationship production of financial, physical and technological resources are established for those in the public sector.
In addition to collective bargaining which consists of labor-management relations, types of services are added to make a Multi-lateral Bargaining system.
Historical Development of Public
Public employee organizations existed before early 1900’s but in result of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) it was discouraged between 1935 and 1960’s.
President John F. Kennedy used an Executive Order (EO) 10988 to extend national government employees the right to organize and engage in collective.
Regulatory entities created by the (EO) 10988 to centralize the decision making away from the executive branch agencies.
Federal Labor Relations Council
Federal Services Impasses Panel
Assistant Secretary of Labor
The Civil Service Reform Act (CSRA) of 1978
Most Important aspect was the evolution of the merit system from a protection against blatant partisan manipulation to a system that provided what many called excessive job security for employees (competent or not), that made possible virtually automatic salary increases (deserved or not) and that made it difficult for responsible managers to dismiss unproductive employees.
1883 Pendleton Act, which was devoted almost solely to eliminating patronage practices, the CSRA incorporated a wide variety of complex and interrelated objectives.Underlying both the Senior Executive Services (SES) and merit pay were several assumptions: “protection employment” would be diluted, performance of middle-and top level managers would be better evaluated, and pay for performance would serve as a positive incentive to those affected
Collective Bargaining Process
Reform downfalls consisted of:
Performance appraisal suffered from uncertainties about how appraisals would be conducted and how their result would be used.
Salary caps on what (SES) members could earn, controversy on (SES) bonuses/ pay increases, along with disputing bonus distribution.
The design of (SES) as a meeting ground for political and career executives came into question.
The Uncertain Future of Public Sector Collective Bargaining
It is clear that in the past fifty years, that there has been an unparalleled and undoubtedly permanent change in many aspects of personnel management.
As far as the fiscal implications are concerned tow details are noticed:
Higher personnel cost are associated with collective bargaining
Agreements negotiated between labors with management reduce the flexibility of those responsible for drawing up and approving government budgets by creating wage/salary and fringe benefits figures that can be changed only with great difficulty after a contract is ratified by the negotiating parties.
Affirmative Action and Comparable Worth
The rationale behind the affirmative action movement is that some individuals and groups have been unfairly in many cases, arbitrarily, discriminated against in the past and that seeking to bring them into government services is one effective way to redress old grievances.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was established in 1964 to investigate charges of racial and other arbitrary discrimination by employers and unions, in all aspects of the employment, and to enforce equal employment laws with legal actions.
The key principle of equal pay for equal work was firmly established by the national Equity Pay Act of 1963, requiring an end to any gender-based (or other) discrimination in compensation for individuals
engaged in similar work.
Reforming Personal Management
The National Performance Review (1993-2001) proposed a series of progressive changes that had far reached implication for how the national government managed its personnel systems.
Several initiatives undertaken by the Bush administration brought about even more fundamental changes in managing executive-branch personnel.
The second Bush administration attempted to initiate major reorganizations challenging long-
established civil service principles. Supporters of these changes considered them necessary to introduce more merit into a pay and cultural system that has not been receptive to these concepts in the past.
Formal Arrangements of Personnel Systems
About 90% of all national government employees are cover by some merit system. This is done under the system that is administered by the
Office of Personnel Management (OPM)
. Which replaced the 1979 Civil Service Commission.
At the center of many personnel structuring there is the systems of classifying positions. In the matter of the National government this done according to grades or levels that make up the
General Schedule (GS)
At the top of the personnel structure is the
. This classifying area is denoted by the highest career raking officials
Formal Tasks of Personnel Administration
Formal tasks have always traditionally had the inclusion of position classification, recruitment, examination, selection, and compensation
Position Classification is considered to be an essential part of the conduction of recruitment, administering entrance examinations, and to award equal pay for work done.
Recruitment has become more systematic and way less restricting.
In the examination and selection process the achievement-oriented factors like education, ascriptive-criteria, and experience have all played a role in the process.
Compensation has two dimensions
ensuring that wages and salaries are reflective of the responsibility,complexity and skill
Maintaining the rates of compensation so that they aren't dramatically different from the wages and salaries in the private sector.