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CHC2D Canadian History Unit 2 1914-1939
Transcript of CHC2D Canadian History Unit 2 1914-1939
Alliance Systems - Two sides were formed:
The Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy)
The Triple Entente (Britain, France, and Russia)
Causes of War: M.A.N.IA. Canada was drawn into the war on the Western Front by Britain.
We fought bravely and gained national pride in battles such as Ypres, Vimy Ridge and Passchendaele.
Conditions were horrific in the Trench System and No-Man's Land. On the Atlantic Front, convoys of Allied troop and supply ships were often attacked by German U-boats (submarines).
U-boat attacks almost cost us the war.
A U-boat sank the passenger ship Lusitania, which eventually brought the USA into The Great War. Chautauquas: traveling tent shows offering rural areas educational and morally uplifting recreation
Originated in the USA but also flourished in Canada between 1917-1935.
The advent of cars, the radio and The Great Depression led to the death of the Chautauqua. The Stock Market
After The Great War, the economy in Canada expanded very quickly.
New production techniques and consumerism (buy now, pay later) fueled purchasing and speculation in the stock market.
Lack of regulation in stock markets led to an inevitable crash in October 1929, followed by The Great Depression.
Massive unemployment and natural disasters (drought dustbowl, grasshoppers, hail) led to 10 years of hardship. Canadian Prime Ministers were unable/unwilling to help during the Great Depression.
PM William Lyon Mackenzie King swore he would not help Conservative provinces, and then lost the election!
PM R. B. Bennett did nothing for Canada, then proposed a "New Deal" like American President F.D. Roosevelt's right before the next election, which Bennett lost.
PM Mackenzie King won again, but did not help...then the Second World War broke out, ending the Great Depression. Women Universal Suffrage: The right to vote for everyone of legal age.
Canadian women first got suffrage in Manitoba in 1916, thanks to Nellie McClung's efforts.
As part of the Conscription Crisis of the 1917 election, Sir Robert Borden gave some women the Federal vote in 1917.
Women gradually obtained suffrage throughout the provinces until 1940. Contributions to the Great War
Women replaced men in factories, volunteered, became nurses (Bluebirds), and had non-combat roles. Women's sports of the 20s and 30s were popular.
The Edmonton Grads was the greatest Basketball team ever.
In the 1928 Olympics, Canadian women won several gold medals Persons Case-1929
The women of The Alberta Five challenged the Canadian courts in a bid to be recognised as persons.
The Privy Council of Britain (Canada's highest court at the time) ruled in favour of Canadian women. Leading Canadian Women
Mary Pickford became "America's Sweetheart" by starring in Hollywood moving pictures.
Agnes MacPhail was the first woman elected to Parliament in 1921.
Cairine Wilson was the first woman appointed to the Canadian Senate in 1930. Canadian Nationalism Canadian Autonomy (Independence) grew as a result of Canada’s successes in The Great War (1914-18), our attendance at the Treaty of Versailles (1919), our refusal to join the UK in the Chanak Crisis (1922), the Balfour Report (1926).The Statute of Westminster (1931) finally gave Canada its independence from Britain. Propaganda was used by all governments to increase people’s support of the war effort. Victory Bonds were a way for the government to generate money for the war effort and for people to save money for after the war. Halifax Explosion Dec 6th, 1917The main rallying point for all Allied convoys. Two ships collided in Halifax harbour, the one carrying TNT exploded and destroyed the city of Halifax. Over 2000 died, 9000 were injured. Interesting CanadiansTed Rogers: Brilliant electrical engineer. He developed the world’s first batteryless radio (1924) that was powered by regular household current. He went on to found the Rogers telecommunication company. Billes Brothers
In 1927 they incorporated Canadian Tire. The business survived the Great Depression and went on to become the most successful Canadian owned national business ever! Aboriginals Contribution to war: Over 4000 Natives enlisted in the Great War (that’s 1 in 3 native men!). They often took positions such as scout or sniper. Curiously, they had strong ties to Britain dating back 200 years. They often had trouble post-war receiving the same rights/pensions as non-Native soldiers since Natives were wards of the Crown, not citizens. Residential Schools: Native children throughout this time period were removed from their families and placed in boarding schools where authorities tried to “civilize” them. Natives were supposed to be “Red on the outside, White on the inside”. These children often faced, physical, sexual, emotional and mental abuses at the hands of their teachers. The last school closed in 1996! Natives have contributed to the art, literature and culture of Canada. They have their own styles and have influenced others, like Emily Carr. English-French Relations Fall 1914, Canada began to recruit and train soldiers (in English) in a Camp at Valcartier, Quebec. This irritated Quebecers. By 1917, there were not enough volunteers to replace Canadian casualties in the war. PM Borden asked for conscription and held an election over it. He won but at the cost of further alienating Quebecers. Armand Bombardier invented the snowmobile which revolutionized winter travel in Canada. Today, Bombardier is a hugely successful aerospace and transportation company. The French and English have a hockey rivalry in the Habs & Leafs games. Foster Hewitt was the radio announcer who coined the phrase “He shoots, He Scores!” Immigration and Social Growth In the Great War, visible minorities were denied combat roles. They were allowed to take positions behind the lines. Immigrants from countries we were at war with faced discrimination and internment (jail) as they were labelled “Enemy Aliens” by the War Measures Act. Post-war, returning soldiers found few jobs. Workers joined with them and went on strike (Winnipeg General Strike 1919, 30,000 people) to demand better conditions, better wages and collective bargaining rights. The strike was broken violently by the governments and immigrants from Eastern European (ie: communist) countries were deported. Strike leaders then tried to get a social welfare system by joining the government (ex: J.S. Woodsworth)...it took a while. PM King was anti-semitic and had very restrictive immigration policies. He refused to help Canadians during the desperate years of the Depression. PM Bennett also failed to help Canadians during the Depression. People had to survive the Dustbowl in the prairies, single unemployed men were sent to remote “Relief Camps” and the government feared a communist revolution!