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Cold War

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Homero Penuelas

on 11 May 2016

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Transcript of Cold War

Revisionist
Orthodox
Post Revisionist
Historiography
THE ROOTS OF:
The Declaration of
Cold War:


The
Ideological
Conflict

George Keenan's
X ARTICLE
World War II

and the
Diplomacy of the
Grand Alliance
3 VISIONS
OF
THE WAR
Iron Curtain
American

and

Soviet




Decisions
Truman Doctrine
3/12/1947
Marshall Plan
The
Change
in
Leadership
Truman
FDR
Roosevelt’s death catapulted
Byrnes
to the forefront of American diplomacy. Since Truman depended on him for a correct interpretation of Yalta, Byrnes’ mistaken understanding of the provisions regarding Poland and the Declaration of Liberated Europe initially contributed to the President’s erroneous impression that the Soviets were violating the meaning of Yalta.
The Result
- The Significance of the April 23rd Meeting between Truman and Molotov -
From Cooperation to Carrot and Stick
In
1946, Winston Churchill
delivered his
"Iron Curtain"
speech.
Although today it is regarded as one of the most influential speeches of the period, the speech was not well received at the time.
Some thought Churchill was seeking an
Anglo-Saxon
alliance against the Soviet Union -- something the general American public felt unnecessary at the time
GOAL:
RESTORATION OF THE BALANCE OF POWER

MEANS:
Encouragement of self-confidence in nations threatened by Soviet expansion

ACTUAL APPLICATIONS:
Long-term program of U.S. economic assistance [Marshall Plan]
1.
2.
GOAL:
REDUCTION OF SOVIET ABILITY TO PROJECT OUTSIDE POWER

MEANS:
Exploitation of tensions in international communism

ACTUAL APPLICATION:
Cooperation with communist regimes; [supporting Titoism in Yugoslavia]
3.
GOALS:
MODIFICATION OF THE SOVIET CONCEPT OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS.

MEANS:
Negotiating settlement of outstanding differences.

ACTUAL APPLICATION
: Using “carrots & sticks’; containing Germany with an embrace and Russia at arms length.
America promised it would support free countries which were fighting communism.

America Declares Cold War –
LaFeber’s Thesis
1.
2.
3.
4.
First, it marked the point at which Truman used the American fear of communism both at home and abroad to convince Americans they must embark upon a Cold War foreign policy
Second, Congress was giving the President great powers to wage this Cold War as he saw fit.
Third, for the first time in the postwar era, Americans massively intervened in another nation's civil war. Intervention was justified on the basis of anticommunism.
Finally, and perhaps most important, Truman used the doctrine to justify a gigantic aid program to prevent the collapse of the European and American economies
In 1947, US Secretary of State Marshall announced the Marshall Plan.
This was a
massive economic aid plan
for Europe
to help it recover
from the damage caused by the war.

There were
two motives
for this:

Helping Europe to recover economically would
provide markets for American goods
, so benefiting American industry.
A prosperous Europe would be better able to
resist the spread of communism
. This was probably the main motive.
COLD WAR 1
1949-1953

STALIN'S DEATH
2. BRINKSMANSHIP






1953-1969
The
Soviet Union
is responsible: Soviet
Insecurity
drove them to confront the United States. There was nothing the US could have done.









The Ideological perspective here is that
Communism is a danger/aggressive
The
United States
is responsible: United States
needs to have markets
and resources to feed its economy. The Soviet Union impeded these goals and therefore had to be confronted. Economic Issues drive US policy. The Ideological perspective here is that
Capitalism is the danger/aggressor.
There is
truth in both

arguments. The Soviet Union under
Stalin was paranoid
and difficult to deal with. The
United States
was driven in large part by the
fear of another depression
.

Other issues played a serious role in the origins of the Cold War:
Domestic Policy, Security, Allies, and perceptions.


The Ideological perspective here is that all post-revisionist do not agree. Ideology still drives their views regarding the degree of responsibility each side has.
Melvyn Leffler
– The Security Dilemma
 
Neither the Americans nor the Soviets sought to harm the other in 1945. But each side, in pursuit of its security interests, took steps to arouse the other’s apprehensions.
Vladislav Zubok & Constantine Pleshakov –
The Revolutionary-Imperial paradigm

 Marxism was a utopian teaching, but since it proclaimed that the goal of the material transformation of the world was to be realized in a violent confrontation with its opponents, Communist proselytes developed a whole set of highly effective political institutions. Utopian ideals gave way to ruthless and cynical interpretation of the realpolitik tradition.
Geir Lundestad –
Empire by Invitation/Integration vs. Empire by Force

(1)
The United States
established an Empire in Europe by Invitation/Integration (contrasted to its Asian/Latin American spheres of influence)

 (2)
The Soviet Union

established an Empire in Europe by Force (contrasted to its Asian/Latin American spheres of influence)
World View -
Internationalism

Post War Goals
1. Allies...
2. Cooperation...
3. Collective Security...
4. "Sellable" Agreements...

Danger to the World Order
– Economic Collapse, The Depression again & Separate Peace
World View
– Power Politics

Post War Goals-
1. (Did I mention) Security
2. Cash in on monumental sacrifice...

Danger to the World Order –
Germany and Everything (he is paranoid)
a)Stalin's Paranoia)The Role of Intelligence
World View -
Balance of Power

Post War Goals-
1. Reconstruct the traditional balance of power in Europe...
2. Influence America...

 
Danger to the World Order
– American Return to Isolation, England Alone & Separate Peace
1.
2
3
4
THE CONFERENCE
YALTA
BRENTWOOD
POTSDAM
-agreed to
United Nations
-
free elections
in ALL Europe
-
Germany
was to be disarmed and
divided
into 4 zones
-principle of
reparations
was established
1st Conference
Main task:
agree on plans to end the war in Euro + to win the war against Japan is Asia
The Great Polish Question

-for
England
it was a Q of honor
-for
Stalin
a Q of honor and security
-
Euro always attacked Russia through Poland
S
T
A
L
I
N
F
D
R
C
H
U
R
C
H
I
L
L
England felt betrayed like it was being plundered while she was down
-established
$
as the world's main reserve currency, freely convertible to
gold
pushing the British pound into 2nd place
"Economist"
magazine noted:
"It is aggravating to find out that the price for losing 1/4 of our wealth in the common cause is to pay tribute for 1/2 a century to those who have been enriched by the war"
-not a replay of Yalta
-Churchill had been voted out of office and replaced by Attle
-Truman had replaced FDR after his death
Potsdam papered over cracks on reparations + decisions to treat Germany as an econ. unit, rather than zones.
-Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland were required to pay reparations and accept some territorial adjustment

-No treaty could be reached on Germany or Japan
THE ATOM BOMB
5
1. SECURITY...
2. SECURITY...
3. SECURITY...
4. SECURITY...
1. COOPERATION...
1. SURVIVAL...
APRIL 25, 1945: ELBE RIVER, GERMANY
Endemic wars of Europe in the past millennium have been of two broad kinds:

1. wars of ideology
2. wars of succession and balance of power

Cold War combined BOTH
SOVIET UNION
CONSOLIDATES POWER IN EASTERN EUROPE
STALIN CREATES COMINFORM
The bomb as a merely probable weapon had seemed a weak reed on which to rely, but the bomb as a colossal reality was very different (Henry L. Stimson, Sec. Of War, Roosevelt Admin.)i) The assumption of useii) The Effect on Relations – The Opposite Effect
The Hiroshima Bomb

Those who conducted diplomacy became more confident, more certain that through the accomplishments of American science, technology, and industry the "new world" could be made into one better than the old.
6
ADHERENCE TO
AGREEMENTS
Both
Moscow
and
Washington
were prone to see the
costs of compliance greatly outweighing the benefits
, they began to take tentative steps to jettison or reinterpret key provisions of wartime accords. Each such step magnified the suspicions of the potential adversary and encouraged reciprocal actions. Before long,
wartime cooperation was forgotten
, the Cold War was under way, and a new arms race was imminent. Neither side was innocent of responsibility
3. DETENTE
1969-1979
4. COLD WAR 2
1979-1985
COMMUNISM IN
CRISIS

THE END?
4 STAGES
THE
BERLIN BLOCKADE
(June 1948-May 1949)
NATO
NSC-68
KOREAN WAR
1950-1953
He cut road, rail and canal links with West Berlin, hoping to starve it into submission.

The west responded by airlifting in the necessary supplies to allow W. Berlin to survive.

In May 1949, Russia admitted defeat and lifted the blockade.
WEST
GERMANY
EAST
GERMANY
In 1948, the three western controlled zones of were united, and grew in prosperity due to Marshal Aid.

The west wanted the east to rejoin, but Stalin feared it would hurt Soviet security.

In June 1948, Stalin decided to try to gain control of W. Berlin which was deep inside the eastern sector.
A military alliance established by the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949. The NATO headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, and the organization constitutes a system of collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutualdefense in response to an attack by any external party.

The first NATO Secretary General, Lord Ismay, famously stated the organization's goal was "to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down“

In 1954, the Soviet Union suggested that it should join NATO to preserve peace in Europe.[ The NATO countries, fearing that the Soviet Union's motive was to weaken the alliance, ultimately rejected this proposal
WARSAW
When West Germany joined NATO in 1955, the Soviet Union countered by creating its own alliance system in eastern Europe– the Warsaw Pact (1955)
With the fall of China to Communist forces and Stalin’s acquirement of the Atom Bomb(1949) rapidly heats up the Cold War.

This lead Truman to instruct the National Security Council to reassess America ‘s Cold War Policy.
•Problem of containment-required strong military force. America could no longer bluff its way w/ nuclear bomb, it needed to rearm w/ conventional weapons

Sketched an apocalyptic scenario:
oUSSR was animated by a new fanatical faith, antithetical to our own, and seeks to impose authority.
Keenan did his best to undermine its analysis. He did not believe Stalin had a blue print to conquer the world.
US SOLUTION TO DILEMMA

•America was to take the lead in fashioning a viable political and economic system throughout the non communist world
•No point in negotiating w/ Moscow
•Balance of power was such that Moscow could not be coerced in to concessions •American had to prepare for military confrontation
oHydrogen bomb and rapid expanse of conventional armed forces
1. Background...
2. America and S. Korea (Rhee)...
3. USSR and N. Korea (Kim IL-sung)...
CHANGED
EVERYTHING
SOLVED
NOTHING
NEW LEADERS
AND
LOST OPPORTUNITIES
STALIN'S HEIRS
BERIA
MALENKOV
ZHUKOV
KHRUSHCHEV
GOALS OF NEW LEADERSHIP:
1.
REFORM
SOVIET COMMUNISM...
2.
HUMANIZE
COMMUNISM...
3.
IMPROVE
STANDARD OF LIVING...
4.
COEXISTENCE
...
1. REPUDIATES STALIN...
-Stalin's authoritative ways discredited....
-China appalled
-Hope for E. Europe?
MAO
KHRUSHCHEV
MEET THE NEW BOSS
2. POLISH AND HUNGARIAN DISSENT LEADS TO CRACKDOWN...
...,SAME AS THE OLD BOSS
EASTERN EUROPE REMAINS IN SOVIET HANDS
An Historic Irony:
Sergei Khrushchev (son), became an American Citizen
"It doesn't depend on you (The West) whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side.


We will bury you.
-- 1956
EISENHOWER
THIRD WORLD
AND
THE COLD WAR
SUEZ CANAL
CRISIS- 1956
NON ALIGNED
MOVEMENT
In the 1950s, French intellectuals coined the term “Third World” to describe the efforts of countries seeking a “third way” between Western capitalism and Soviet communism.
Bandung Conference 1955
5 Principles of Coexistence

1. Mutual Respect...
2. Non Interference...
3. Non Aggression...
4. Equal and Mutual Benefits...
5. Peaceful Coexistence...
1. Ended British and French power in the Middle East...
2. Eisenhower Doctrine...
3. Emboldened Khrushchev...
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
THE CRISIS
DEPLOYMENT OF MISSILES
CUBAN
REVOLUTION
AFTER THE NEW REPUBLIC IS FAILED TO BE RECOGNIZED BY U.S.A CASTRO AND CUBA TURN TO THE USSR FOR HELP IN DEFENDING THEIR REVOLUTION FROM OUTSIDE FORCES
1. BACKGROUND...
2. STEPS TOWARDS USSR...
BAY OF PIGS...
RESULTS...
OPERATION MONGOOSE...
RESPONSES
2 Distinct Themes of Chinese Foreign Policy post 1956

1. Self Reliance...
2. Imperialist Were Paper Tigers...
-Mao on Nuclear War...
1.Transformed Post War Political Status...
2. Transformed Economic Status..

IRONY
-America had fought WW2 against Japan’s Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere and 5 years after the war it had become US policy to reestablish that sphere.
Soviet Union now faced German Panzer divisions to the west, this time backed by America’s industrial might.
NATO forces expanded rapidly.
•By 1952, there were 261,000 American troops stationed in Europe, three times the number in 1950.
•By 1953, NATO forces had reached 7 million.
SPIES IN THE SKY
1. Sputnik...
2. America's failed response...
3. Most enduring results...
-USSR...
-America...
-ICBMs and Europe...
-European Economic Community
-
1952: Eisenhower Elected President
-Aggressive foreign policy...
-Secretary of State Dulles...
-Military Complex...
BERLIN CRISIS
1961
U-2 INCIDENT
May 1st, 1960
1. Soviet Ultimatum...
2. Western Reply...
3. Check Point Charlie...
•Khrushchev planned the deployment in May 1962, by late July over sixty Soviet ships were en route to Cuba.
•On September 4, 1962 Kennedy told congress that there were no offensive missiles in Cuba.
•September 8, 1962 saw the first consignment of SS-4 MRBMs unloaded in Havana, with a second shipload arriving on September 16.
•The missiles were not discovered by the U.S. until photographs were shown to Kennedy on October, 16, 1962.
•Kennedy announced the discovery of the installations in a televised address on October 22. He proclaimed that any nuclear attack from Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union, and they would respond accordingly.
AFTER
THE CRISIS
KHRUSHCHEV'S MOTIVES FOR ARMING CUBA

1. DEFEND CUBAN REVOLUTION...
2. CREATE NUCLEAR BALANCE...
HOTLINE
THE WEST
USSR
AND
KHRUSHCHEV
RESULTS
DEAN RUSK
“We were eyeball to eyeball, and the other fellow just blinked”
USSR: Two tactical victories for K

1. Public guarantee not to attack Cuba
2. Private promise to remove Jupiter Missiles from Turkey

Khrushchev suffered major strategic reverse

1. Plan to achieve swift strategic parity w/ the US had been publicly and humiliatingly thwarted

a. Town of K changed name to Kremges
b.Began downfall which would come two years later
USA AND KENNEDY:
EUROPE:
1.Military leaders upset at JFK
a.“it’s the greatest defeat in our history, Mr. President…we should invade today.”
1.Intensity of standoff between the superpowers reinforced the plain fact that it was now a bipolar world
2.Europe was to be defended but when it came to America’s vital interest they were to be informed rather than consulted
1960’s England dependent on America for nuclear technology and dwindling prestige
W. Europe developed independently from Anglo-Americans, dominated by the Franco-German alliance
VIETNAM WAR
THE EMERGENCE OF AUTONOMY
Term first used by French President Charles de Gaulle in the early 1960s

-Relaxation of East-West tensions -Peaceful coexistence

The core idea: despite the profound differences between the capitalist and communist systems, war is not inevitable, there are mutual interests which can be best served by cooperation in:

-Avoiding a major war; pursuing arms control and disarmament
-Joint approaches to regional conflicts
-Trade and investment
IT WAS A FRAUD!!
RAPPROCHEMENT
NIXON
AND
KISSINGER
NIXON ON:
Vietnam War...
Nixon Doctrine...
Linkage...
THE EMERGENCE OF AUTONOMY
BREZHNEV
Rise of...
Prague "Spring"...
Brezhnev Doctrine...
Sino-Soviet Conflict
China upset over Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakian Social Democratic Gov.

Chinese leaders see it as Social Imperialism, driving a wedge between European and Asian Communism.

June 1969: China, North Korea and North Vietnam failed to show up to an international communist conference.
INTERNATIONAL COMMUNISM
WAS NO MORE.
S.A.L.T. 1 - 1972
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Signed by Brezhnev and Nixon, May 1972
limited deployment of ABM...
agreement also signed on health and space programs
agreement on basic principals regarding their relations
HELSINKI ACCORD - 1973
BACKGROUND:
BREZHNEV AND EUROPE...
HELSINKI AGREEMENTS
ATTENDED AND SIGNED BY...
BREZHNEV'S PYRRIC VICTORY...
No real plan
He alternated between advice from:
Jimmy Carter
Secretary of State






Cyrus Vance
National Security Adviser





Zbigniew Brzezinski
&
DEATH OF DETENTE
Carter and China...
SALT 2
The primary goal of SALT II was to replace the Interim Agreement with a long-term comprehensive Treaty providing broad limits on strategic offensive weapons systems

The completed SALT II agreement was signed by President Carter and General Secretary Brezhnev in Vienna on June 18, 1979. However, Carter requested the Senate majority leader to delay consideration of the Treaty on the Senate floor in view of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

Both countries pledge to observe the treaty limits voluntarily.
CARTER DOCTRINE
Any attempt by an outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf Region will be regarded as a n assault on the vital interest of the U.S.
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