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Network Interface Cards

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Rain Ahamad

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Network Interface Cards

Today we are focusing on:
Interface Card"

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia -
A network interface controller (NIC) (also known as a network interface card, network adapter, LAN adapter and by similar terms) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network. Some work with wired connections while others are wireless
A standard PC network adapter is a plastic circuit board about the size of a playing card. It has several computer chips that process signals from the network and the PC. The card slides into the PC's chassis and mates firmly with a connector on the motherboard.

A steel bracket holds the card in place. The bracket may have a network cable jack or an antenna, depending on the type of network to which the computer connects. The bracket also has light-emitting diodes that indicate network status and activity.
The card cannot function without the right driver software. [the result as below]
* what is computer components
* importance of computer components
* types of computer components and it's basic use
* focusing on one of the least famous computer components
Network Interface Card (NIC) can be found in many devices. Which device do you think you are familiar with? result from respondent as below

Almost everyone uses a computer daily, but many don't know how a computer works or all the different individual pieces that make it up. In fact, many people erroneously look at a computer and call it a CPU or a hard drive, when in fact these are just two parts of a computer. When these individual components are connected together they create a complete and working device with an all encompassing name of computer. As a computer user it is important that you have a basic understanding of the core components that make up your computer. This knowledge will prove invaluable if you decide to upgrade your computer or if a piece of hardware breaks and you need to purchase a replacement. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the basic pieces in every computer and their function.
What is Computer ?
is an electronic device that receives input, stores it for a period of time, operating it according to a set of instructions known as a Program) and give the user with and output.

in other words, computer is an electronic device which converts data into information
what is the information
processing cycle ?
If you use a desktop computer, you might already know that there isn't any single part called the "computer."

The illustration below shows the most common hardware in a desktop computer system. Your system may look a little different, but it probably has most of these parts.
When you look at your computer what you are seeing is actually the computer case. Inside the case are all of the individual components that when connected together create your computer. On the outside of the case you will see various external ports that you can plug devices into as well as the ability to access your optical devices such as your CD and DVD drives.

The Outside of your Computer
Lets take a look at each parts and its basic use
Types of Computer Components & it's Basic Rules
A computer is really a system of many parts working together. The physical parts, which you can see and touch, are collectively called hardware. (Software, on the other hand, refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do.)

Just like the Human body, the computer is made up of different components, all of which are very important for the overall effective functioning of its system. The word computer refers to a system composed of many components. A computer system has both hardware and software components
the importance of computer components
A network card functions as a middleman between your computer and the data network. For example, when you log in to a website, the PC passes the site information to the network card, which converts the address into electrical impulses.

Network cables carry these impulses to a Web server somewhere on the Internet, which responds by sending a Web page back to you, once again in the form of electronic signals. The card receives these signals and turns them into data that your PC displays.

In addition to the network card's hardware, it needs programming to make it work. When you install the card, Microsoft Windows loads software drivers for your card's make and model.

Your browser, email and other programs communicate through Windows to reach the network; Windows, in turn, passes data to the drivers that are programmed specifically for your network interface card. The card cannot function without the right driver software.
Most contemporary network cards work with Wi-Fi wireless networks; these cards have an antenna to send data signals via radio waves.

Some networks still use wired Ethernet connections; these cables have a rectangular plug which mates with a jack on the network card's bracket.

In many new computers, network adapter cards are actually custom computer chips built into the PC's motherboard.

Connect to :
Motherboard via one of:
PCI Connector
ISA Connector

Network via one of:
Token ring
What is
Network Interface Card ?
... there are various type and kind of computer components...
and for the next, we are choosing one of computer components -
Network Interface Card.
Thus, we distributed the questionnaires to 50 respondance
(colleagues, students and families)
from various background, gender, and level of age
so that we can measure their understanding and usage
of Network Interface Card.
based from our respondent, we found &
strongly believe that our respondent use it
but they didnt realize or know exact meaning of NIC
Do you know what is
Network Interface Card (NIC) ?
In addition, we distributed the following questionnaire to 50 respondance (colleagues, students and families)
so that we can measure understanding and usage
of Network Interface
Network interface cards provide a reliable connection to the Internet?
NICs also provide more secure connections ?
The card cannot function without the right driver software. ?
NIC Card helps for communication between 2 systems ?
NIC Card helps to connect to Remote Systems ?
NIC Card data can be transffered from one system to another ?
NIC Card data is not secure ?
from the indication answer of the above questionnaire, we are summarized that half from the respondent are
aware "the existence" of Network Interface Card and half from the respondent using it daily without knowing
we measuring their answer based on indicator "YES"
"NO" or "NOT SURE"
where can we found the NIC?
ATM is a high-speed networking standard designed to support both voice and data communications. ATM is normally utilized by Internet service providers on their private long-distance networks. ATM operates at the data link layer (Layer 2 in the OSI model) over either fiber or twisted-pair cable.
Personal computers and workstations on a local area network (LAN) typically contain a network interface card specifically designed for the LAN transmission technology, such as Ethernet or token ring
The two most common types of network connections are Ethernet (wired) and WiFi (wireless).
Ethernet NICs
Ethernet NICs are used for wired Ethernet connections. In a common network, one end of the Ethernet cable is plugged into the Ethernet NIC, and the other is plugged into a router or networking hub.

Another common type of NIC is the wireless NIC. Wireless NICs connect to the network using a radio signal. Creating a wireless network requires a compatible wireless router or other wireless device.

MAC Addresses
NICs identify themselves on the network using their Media Access Control (MAC) address, a 6-byte hexadecimal number. Every NIC is assigned a unique MAC address, allowing the network to assign resources such as IP addresses or bandwidth to specific NICs.

As you can see, a computer is more than that box sitting on the side of your desk. In fact it is a very complex machine comprised of numerous parts, cables, and devices that all need to properly work together in order for the computer to operate correctly. Having this basic understanding of the parts of your computer is important for any computer user. Whether you need to purchase a new one, upgrade an existing one, or repair a broken one, you now have the knowledge to understand what you are looking at.

Now that you know how to connect your various external components to your computer case, let's take a look at the inside of a computer as this is where the magic really happens. To open your case, you will need to typically unscrew a side panel or press a button on the bottom of the computer to open the computer like a clamshell. Once you can see inside a computer, you will see various individual components connected via cables or plugged directly into a large board attached to the side of the case.
The Inside of your Computer

The motherboard, or mobo for short, is perhaps the most critical piece of the computer. It is a relatively large, rectangular board filled with various circuits, chips , and slots that you plug things into The motherboard serves two functions. First, the motherboard is home to a number of chips that dictate how the various components of the computer will talk to each other. It also has special slots that allow you to plug expansion cards in that add new or improved functionality to your computer. Secondly, and perhaps most importantly, the motherboard is the connecting point for all of the other pieces of the computer. Without the motherboard, the different parts cannot communicate with each other, and the computer cannot function.
Central Processing Unit

The central processing unit, or CPU, is at the core of every computer. Functioning as the "brain" of the computer, the CPU performs basic mathematical and logical functions as instructed by a computer program
A CPU has a maximum speed at which it can safely process instructions. This speed is called the clock rate and is measured in hertz (Hz).
Power Supply Unit

All parts of a computer require electricity in order to operate. The part of the computer that provides this electricity is called the power supply unit, or PSU. The PSU receives electricity from an external source, which is usually a wall outlet, and changes it into power that the other parts of the computer can use.
Hard Disk Drive

The hard disk drive, or HDD, is the primary source of secondary storage in modern computers. Secondary storage is any device where information is stored when it is not needed for immediate use. An HDD uses magnetism to record information on a rotating disk of magnetic material.
Optical Disk Drives

An optical disk drive is a component that uses a laser to read from or write to an optical disk. Examples of optical disks include CDs, DVDs, and Blu-Rays. An optical disk drive writes to a disk by using a laser to etch tiny grooves into the surface of the disk. The disk is read by using a different, low-power laser to detect those grooves

Random Access Memory, or RAM, is the part of the computer where information is stored while it is being used by the computer's processor, operating system, programs, and other devices on your computer. RAM is designed so that any of the information stored on it can be read in any order without losing performance. This makes RAM faster and more efficient to store data compared to slower devices such as an HDD or CD-ROM.

Sound Cards

Sound cards are a kind of expansion card which deals with audio input and output. Sound cards generally fill two functions. First, sound cards enhance the sound processing capability of the computer, allowing for the creation and output of more complex sounds. Secondly, sound cards often possess input and output ports that allow for other audio devices such as microphones or speakers to be connected to it.
Video Cards

A video card is a type of expansion card which increases the computer's ability to handle different kinds of visual output. Video cards have two main functions. First, while nearly all modern motherboards have some basic graphics capabilities built in, a video card can handle graphics issues much more effectively than the graphic chips built into the motherboard.
External Ports

As mentioned earlier in the motherboard section, a number of connectors on the motherboard are accessible from the back panel of the computer case. These connections are called external ports because they can be accessed from outside the computer case. There are a number of different kinds of connections available that include:

VGA or DVI Connector-
These ports are used for connecting a monitor or other display device to your computer.
Ethernet Port -
This port allows you to connect your computer to a network or the Internet.
Allows you to connect your computer a High Definition display or TV.
These ports allow you to connect an external SATA hard drive to your computer.
USB Port -
A common connector for external devices. More information about USB ports can be found below.
Network Interface Card (NIC) can be found in many devices. Which device do you think you are familiar with?
Full transcript