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A Rhetorical Perspective
Transcript of A Rhetorical Perspective
Oldest Subject Taught-
Tisias, in ancient Greece (444 BCE) taught how to accuse others of wrongdoing in the public forum or how to defend yourself against accusations of others in the same place
Because of the Greek City-States Legal Structure
It is always tied to persuasion- influencing people’s behavior
The Roots of Advocacy
A Rhetorical Perspective
“the use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols.” (Burke)
(cc) photo by Jakob Montrasio
Socrates and Plato
Protageras, Corax, Tisias, Isocrates, Gorgias
What they did
Known for “selling wisdom”
Have to keep in mind the importance of orality
Had complete education system with Grammar, Logic (Dialectic) and Rhetoric
Very early in philosophy, Rhetoric is the name for making the weaker case SEEM the stronger
Plato (427 347 bce)- Rhetoric is like a knack, cooking
Remember to :
-Text @Comm2140 to 81010
Aristotle- “Rhetoric is the counterpart (Antistrophe) of dialectic (logic)”
“Rhetoric may be defined as the faculty (dynamis) of observing in any given case the best available means of persuasion” (Aristotle, Rhetoric Bk 1, Ch. 2)
Speeches concerning the past (Justice)
Speeches of honor, praise or blame
Speeches discussing a course of action (Utility)
1. Rhetoric is not only a subject but a perspective
2. Just as Plato and Aristotle had different definitions of rhetoric, many exist today.
3. “the study of producing discourses and interpreting how, when, and why discourses are persuasive.” (Keith and Lundberg 2008, 4)
Invesitgating Discourse in Action
How discourse works
Exploring Examples of discourse in action
or, from Plato to Beyonce and back again
Origins of rhetoric
how we approach rhetoric today
Illiad Book IX,
...They all held their peace, dismayed at the sternness with which he had denied them, till presently the old knight Phoenix in his great fear for the ships of the Achaeans, burst into tears and said, "Noble Achilles, if you are now minded to return, and in the fierceness of your anger will do nothing to save the ships from burning, how, my son, can I remain here without you? Your father Peleus bade me go with you when he sent you as a mere lad from Phthia to Agamemnon. You knew nothing neither of war nor of the arts whereby men make their mark in council, and he sent me with you to train you in all excellence of speech and action.