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APES A-Z Project

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Alicia Eltermann

on 24 May 2015

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Transcript of APES A-Z Project


Agriculture is how we grow plants and animals to be vital resources in our everyday lives. As the picture shows, this is kept up crop land used for farming the crops we use and eat all the time. Agriculture plays a big role in environmental science by showing us how many resources like water and electricity we use to get the food we need. It also makes us environmentally conscious so we won't be so reckless with how much water we use every day. Raising animals like cattle uses over double the amount of resources that plant agriculture does. This makes you think twice before you use all the hot water in the shower just knowing that agriculture takes up a lot of space and resources.
arbon Footprint

l Niño

Deforestation is when trees are cut down or burned down in an area to the point where nothing is left. This particular problem is bad for the environment because it causes soil erosion from the lack of trees and plants as well as habitat loss. Deforestation also results in lack of biodiversity, which also has a negative impact of the ecosystem. The tree stump is an example of how it can start out small but if we don’t limit ourselves to the things we destroy, then we can end up demolishing everything we have. Cutting back on the amount of ecosystems we impact can help with sustainability; at the rate we’re going we won’t have anything left for future generations. Also cutting down all the trees can impact photosynthesis and how much oxygen and carbon dioxide is in the atmosphere. We need oxygen from tree to breathe, so deforestation only results in hurting ourselves in the end.
Biomagnification is the process in which the concentration of toxins increases as it moves up the food chain. As shown in the image, the lower food chain or the producer starts out with a lower concentration of toxins, then as it gets higher and higher in the food chain the concentration of toxins increases and becomes more harmful. Biomagnification impacts animals in ecosystems, but it also impacts humans as well. Any type of pollution or toxin that comes from anthropogenic sources, gets into the food we eat. And the larger the food is, the more likely there are high amounts of toxins in it. This impacts larger species the most because at the point they already have accumulated the toxins from their source of food. This can have a negative environmental impact because if the top predator dies out in an ecosystem, then there isn’t anything regulating its prey. This could lead to an overpopulation of the prey, like fish for example, and the plants in the ecosystem could drastically decrease, leading to the ecosystem failing.

Developed countries are more technologically advanced than developing countries. This impacts the amount of carbon dioxide emissions produced in these countries. In the graph it shows how much more carbon emissions developed countries, like the U.S., Canada, and Western Europe burn, than developing countries like Africa and India. Burning excessive amounts of carbon causes ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. Having too much carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere can cause the gases to become trapped and end up heating up the earth. This then can impact the Polar Regions because the ice starts to melt. Therefore the organisms that live there have nowhere else to go and will eventually become extinct.
APES A-Z Project

nvasive Species
- Curve

eystone Species

itrogen Fixation
uantitative Data
ain shadow Effect


V Rays
ater pollution
ebra Mussels

Yellowstone National Park is an example of preserving wildlife and habitat over a large area of land. In the map, it shows how much natural, untampered, land is used strictly for the preservation of species and habitat. Keeping reserves such as this and preserving the natural beauty is important for sustainability. If we as humans continue to destroy habitats, eventually nothing will be left for the future generations. This is why it’s important to have nature reserves for endangered species or species dying out because of the lack of their habitat. If no one tries to preserve nature and the resources that come from it, nothing will be left in the end.
"US CO2 Output Up, and How to Lie with Graphs." Greg Ladens Blog. N.p., 07 June 2014. Web. 18 May 2015.
"Yellowstone Geology." Yellowstone Geology. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2015.
ellowstone National Park
"Biomagnification: How DDT Becomes Concentrated as It Passes through a Food Chain." Biomagnification. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2015.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Agricultural land. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Tree stump. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web
abitat destruction
Eltermann, Alicia M. Construction. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Habitat destruction has led to many ecosystems no longer existing as well as displacement of animals causing some to go extinct. This a problem because we are losing biodiversity when we build houses over ecosystems. Damaging these habitats only causes' problems. More pollution which hurts us as much as the wildlife. And removing a large amounts of trees can cause serious erosion because the soil has nothing holding it down, so it gets blown or washed away easily.
A rain shadow is a section of land that has become a desert because of the mountain blocking rain from getting to it. In the map, on one side of the mountain is where the rain trickles down and makes the land fertile and nutrient rich. Whereas the other side of the mountain is dry and lacks nutrients because if the mountain range in the middle blocking the rain from getting to that side. The rain shadow effect in an ecosystem can create two completely different climates within the same area or biome. This creates a lot of biodiversity within a small span of land and different types of species that live in each.
"Here Comes El Nino; Good News for US Weather Woes." Survival Based Blog Here Comes El Nino Good News for US Weather Woes Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 May 2015.
El Niño is the phenomenon where the water across temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific goes through a period of warming. As shown in the map, these ocean currents cause North America to experience hotter temperatures during the winter. This connects to environmental science because even though a majority of people know this is a natural occurring phenomenon, some can't help but wonder if humans have been the reason why the past few have been extreme. They've become more frequent which means less of a cooling down period. If the rate of El Niño continues like this, there could be serious environmental consequences like the ice caps melting.
Invasive species are organisms that are brought over from another habitat and harm the species in the new habitat. For example the stink bug is an invasive species that came over from Asia and is now in our own ecosystem. Invasive species are a problem because they can potentially displace the native species of animals or plants because they often do not have a predator. If the invasive species removes an indigenous organism from their habitat, then the ecosystem could potentially collapse. Like most invasive species, the stink bug doesn't have any predators that are currently in the United States. While they don't necessarily pose a threat to animals and other insects, they're an agricultural problem because they damage pears and apples severely.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Stink bug. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Water pollution is a serious problem in a lot of ecosystems. Not only does the water become dirty and contaminated, it also can physically harm the animals. Some pollution that washes into waterways can get wrapped around the organisms that live there and cause deformities and health problems. The picture above shows all the various types of pollution that can show up in ponds, rivers, lakes, oceans and so on. Things like plastic can either be swallowed by an organism such as a turtle because it mistakes it as a jellyfish, or can become wrapped around the turtles shell at a young age and causes it to be constricted when they grow older. This can cause the plastic to dig into their skin and shell and make it hard for them to breathe. Water pollution has very serious consequences on our wildlife and our water quality.
By Alicia Eltermann
Foliage is the leaves on the ground of a forest or any group of leaves on the ground. Like the image above, all of the leaves have fallen off and are now decomposing in the soil. This is important to many biomes because it adds nutrients to the soil and makes it more fertile. Foliage is also important because it reduces moisture loss during evaporation, it insulates soil from winter cold and summer heat, minimizes erosion and compaction, and suppresses weeds. This is necessary in certain biomes so they're able to grow and have nutrient rich soil. An example of a biome that needs nutrient rich soil is deciduous forests. The plants and animals there need foliage because decomposition is a big role and that creates nutrient rich soil. This allows plants to grow and allows animals to eat the plants.
"Mulch and Soil Fertility." Rodale's Organic Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Leaves. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Bees are the definition of a keystone species; without them, no ecosystem would be able to survive. Without bees, no plants would be pollinated. If no plants are pollinated, then the flowers and plants don't get the nutrients they need and wither and die. This is a chain reaction because once the plants die, the rest of the ecosystem dies as well. That includes everything, other plants, animals, people, and so on because they can't get any food which they need to survive. Nothing can function without bees, which is why it's important to protect them. When you protect bees, you protect yourself and the rest of the ecosystems in this world as well.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Honey. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Variation is important because in order for species to adapt, they have to undergo changes. These changes ensure that the species is able to live on because it can adapt easily to its environment. Most species have some sort of adaptation. The picture of cats, for example, has adapted the cats in the back to be able to stand colder climates while the other in the front has more muscle for physical activity. These variations in species ensure the longevity of the species because it can adapt to its strengths and become better adapted to its environment.
Legumes are beans that can fix atmospheric nitrogen. The image to thee right shows an example of a type of legume. Legumes are important because since they can fix atmospheric nitrogen, they can be used in a crop rotation to replenish soil that has been depleted of nitrogen. This makes legumes desired in agriculture because they have the ability to make plants nutrient rich. Using legumes also means you get a higher protein content compared to legume substitutes which also makes them ideal for agriculture use.

"Mountain Affects." - WEATHER FORECASTING. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
Geothermal energy has a lot of benefits for the earth and for the people who use it. Shown in the graph above, geothermal energy uses a lot less energy to do the same job as other energy sources. It cut the energy percentage of heating and air conditioning from 64% to 19%, and the rest of that is free geothermal energy. This is importance for people who can't afford high priced energy. It's also important because it's better for the environment compared to all the other energy sources. Geothermal energy uses hot rock and water beneath Earth's surface, so it's one of the cleanest forms of energy to use.
"Alternative Energy Project." Prezi.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Beans. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
The J curve is when population size increases at constant rate because everyone has access to abundant food and water. This is also an example of exponential growth; population increases over time because the number of individuals available to reproduce without resource limits. This is an example of ideal living conditions. The graph above shows how exponential growth increases as time goes by. This is important because, when scientists are trying to predict how a species will function and grow, they use the J curve as a base and make predictions off of it.

"The Environmental Science of Population Growth Models." - For Dummies. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
"Environmental Science Population." Flashcards. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
Mutualism is the positive symbiotic relationship between two organisms. Mutualism is when both organisms benefit from the other. For example, the moss on the wood shown above is an example of a mutualistic relationship. The wood provides a stationary home for the moss and the moss provides protection for the wood. Also when it rains, the moss is able to use the nutrients from the rain to grow and since the wood is providing a sturdy home on the side, the moss is able to get nutrients that way. Mutualistic relationships are important because both the organisms benefit and none get hurt. This provides a healthy relationship among different organisms.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Moss. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Nitrogen fixation is when plants produce nitrogen compounds that help the plants grow. When that plant dies, the fixed nitrogen is released which makes it readily available to other plants as well. Certain types of plants can undergo nitrogen fixation. An example, shown above, is soybeans When soybeans die, the fixed nitrogen in their system making them grow and keeping them alive, is able to be used my other plants and makes the soil more fertile. This is important because a lot of ecosystems need fertile soil to function. Without the aid of nitrogen fixing plants like soybeans, a lot of habitats wouldn't be able to have rich, fertile soil and be able to thrive.
Overgrazing is when animals eat too much grass and vegetation off of a farm. An example of an animal that is prone to overgrazing is the cow in the image below. When cows overgraze an agricultural vicinity, the soil there becomes dry and losses many of its nutrients. Damaging the agricultural fields with overgrazing can also lead to soil erosion because none of the plant roots are there to keep the soil in place. It's important to not overgraze because it hurts the ecosystem and also because there won't be any food leftover for the cattle to eat.
Preserving natural resources is important. This is why many states have recreational or regional parks to regulate the environment. An example is Damascus Recreational Park which is in the Damascus Regional Park. Even though people are still allowed to play and walk around on the park, it is still heavily watched by the park services to make sure the environment is clean and doesn't become polluted. This lets people get close to the environment, but makes sure they don't harm it in any way. Nature preserve and regional parks are important to preserve because its a way of making sure nothing happens to the environment in the future and ensures other generations will be able to see the vast amount of wildlife in the world.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Soybeans. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Cow. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Sustainability is when you preserve the natural world so there are still resources left for future generations. Everyone is able to practice sustainability somehow. Whether it's using less water by taking shorter showers or turning off the light when you leave the room, everyone can do it. Some people, like my family, even have a compost pile. A compost pile is a heap of organic and kitchen excess scraps set up so that it decomposes and fertilizes a yard. By using compost piles and just tossing kitchen scraps in it, it will produce more fertilized soil. There are many ways to practice sustainability and it's important to practice because it helps the environment and it leaves resources for other generations.

This is important to me because a lot of people don't recycle and don't bother turning off the water or electricity when they don't need to be using it. It's such a simple thing to do to help the environment a lot but some people "don't feel like it" or are too lazy to even bother. My family is very environmentally conscious and so when someone says they don't bother recycling because they don't care, it shocks me. It also bothers me a little because it's not like people have to go so much out of their way to make a difference, it's just the simple common sense things. Helping the environment, no matter how big the chore is, is worth it in the end. And most of the time, the chore isn't even that much of a hassle.
Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
Turbidity is degree to which water becomes non transparent because of the amount of suspended particles in water. The chart above shows how different water samples have different levels of turbidity. The one on the far left has a higher amount of turbidity than the one on the far right. Having high rates of turbidity can cause an increase in cost of water treatment since the water has to be filtered ore thoroughly. It can also harm wildlife if the water is so dirty that light can't pass through. And it can also reduce the aesthetic value of lakes or streams used for tourism and could decrease the income.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Compost. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
"5.6 Measuring Turbidity." Measuring Turbidity. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
Sunscreen shown in the picture to the right, is one of the most effective ways to prevent harmful ultraviolet radiation from harming your skin. If you aren't protected from UV rays your chances of having health problems increases. Some health problems related to UV rays are skin cancer, premature aging and skin damage, cataracts and other eye damage, and immune system suppression. This is important to environmental science because the more UV rays that get through the ozone layer, the more dangerous they become. The ozone continues to deplete because of the amount of greenhouse gases we use. The more we use, the more we are in danger of developing serious health problems.
"EPA." Health Effects of UV Radiation. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Sunscreen. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Cats. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Park. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
Quantitative data refers to data that is measured by an amount of something. In environmental science quantitative data is used to measure many different things. In the graph above, it shows the different types of pollution and how much of each there is. This helps scientists figure out what regulations they need to put in place to help reduce the amount of pollution. This is important because if the water and air can be cleaned up, then the world will be a safer, more environmentally friendly place.
"Module 5.1 Presenting Categorical Data Graphically." Module 5.1 Presenting Categorical Data Graphically. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
The x-axis is used for measuring data. It helps environmental scientists keep track of their data in an organized way. It also allows them to compare data to other data they've collected. In the climatograph above, the x-axis is the months that Brazil got precipitation and also what temperature it was that month. This helps them see what months have more rainfall and higher temperatures than others. It's important because it allows them to keep track of data and compare data to other environmental scientists.
Zebra mussels are a type of invasive species that originated in Russia. But as shown in the map above, they have migrated out of Russia. They now are a nuisance in North America. This is a problem because invasive species can cause problems for other ecosystems if not monitored. It's important to regulate items coming in and out of countries to make sure no non-native species can disturb the ecosystem. Putting regulations in place will help keep the native environment safe and pest free.
"Invasive Species Knowledge Center." Invasive Species Knowledge Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
"Jaguar." EndangeredSpeciesBiomesProjects -. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2015.
Eltermann, Alicia M. Water pollution. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web.
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