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TODDLERS

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by

Cara Jackson

on 4 February 2014

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Transcript of TODDLERS

Temper Tantrums:
-State expectations positively
-Discuss treats before store
-Games/engage
while shopping



Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior

First ask yourself:
Remember the age of child
Do they know it’s wrong?
Is it unintentional misbehavior?



Egotism
Self-centered

Self-esteem Self-Image

Hand-eye Coordination continues to improve
can zero in on small objects & pick them up



By 1: Pick up with thumb & forefinger




By 2: doorknobs, pick up things off floor

Height and Weight

Rate of change is slower than infancy

More difference among children –
influenced by heredity and environment

Growth slows somewhat compared to infancy

Toddlers – where does the
name come from?

literally “toddle”


TODDLERS

are they developmentally appropriate?
means it is suitable for the child’s
age, ability, and interests


When choosing toys or activities…

The Motivator

“Give a man a fish
and you feed him for a day.
Teach a man to fish
And you feed him for a lifetime.”

How does this idea relate to caring for children?

What factors might interfere with a caregiver’s
desire to teach self-care?

Which type of motor skill?

Physical Growth

Toddlers

Physical Growth & Development from 1-3

Which type of motor skill?

GROSS MOTOR SKILLS
Use and control big muscle groups like back, legs, shoulders, arms
Ex. Walking, jumping, throwing

FINE MOTOR SKILLS
Use and control finer muscles
of wrists, fingers, ankles
- Increased dexterity*
Ex. Coloring, painting, eating

Motor Skill Development


Quality of Toddler’s Teeth affected by:

Mother’s diet
Child’s diet
Heredity
Dental Care

Proportion and Posture
until 2 – head, chest, abdomen same circumference
Arms/Legs (fastest) lengthen = improves balance
by 3 – more balanced, straighter
By 2 1/2 = half adult height
TODDLER TEETH
@1= brush daily
@2 = supervise them brushing on their own
@3 = brush with fluoride toothpaste 2x a day
Hygiene
DRESSING
&
Bathe daily
Supervise constantly
No sponges
@1 - caregiver bathes child
@2 - helps child
@3 - supervises child
Encourage self-dressing
Select clothes:
-comfy -easy fasteners
-safe - durable quality
-easy to care for
TOILET TRAINING
***have to be physically ready
need language skills to be successful
CONSISTENCY!!!
Bowel control then bladder usually
books/tips/training videos
Don't rush it!!!
SLEEPING HABITS
Step stools
fun toothbrushes
Need Routines
According to Erikson's theory...
Toddlers are experiencing the struggle for autonomy (what does that mean) versus shame & doubt.

How can caregivers help promote a child's independence?
Affected by stress, fears, family lifestyle
@1 = naps
@ 2= p.m. nap
@ 3 = p.m. nap easing to none
Transition to "big" bed is BIG deal
FEEDING TIME
Feeding Toddler Tips
Preferences change daily!
Food should never be used as reward or punishment
Avoid/alter choking hazards...popcorn, grapes, hotdogs, hard candy
Medium temps - no extremes; careful w/microwave
Set good examples - food habits formed early
@1 = encourage self feeding; finger foods, using spoon, sippy cup
@2 = fine motor skills improving so...fork & spoon, eat together but let get up when finished
@3 = full set of primary teeth so..chew most foods
still cut meat/tough food
How do I know how much to feed a toddler?


Provide a variety in texture, shape, make it interesting and fun
Today's motivator is to get ready to share your toddler tooth care tips and tools :)

Take an imaginary mental walk with
a toddler through your neighborhood.

Make a list of people you would meet, sounds you would hear, the sights you would see.

Describe how you might use the walk
to encourage a toddler's intellectual
and speech development.

The Motivator
Methods of Learning
INCIDENTAL
TRIAL-AND-ERROR
IMITATION
DIRECTED
unplanned
stems from another activity
try new ways to do something,
repeat until successful!
Intentionally copying behavior of others
learning on purpose
planned by caregiver
7 Areas of Intellectual Activity

ATTENTION
MEMORY
PERCEPTION
REASONING
IMAGINATION
CREATIVITY
CURIOSITY
Age- Appropriate Toys

1-2 years
working on body control/exploration
stuff around house –pans, etc.
large muscles – swings, push/ride toys
toy cars, simple puzzles, books

Allow them to explore & discover

Help them understand the world and how it works

Take frequent breaks

HELPING TODDLERS LEARN

2-3 years
promote coordination & understanding
little version of housekeeping
crayons, blocks, open-ended

3-4 years
increased motor skills and imagination
small motor development
dolls, cars, puzzles, tricycles

Evaluating Toys
i. Is it safe?
Is it well made and durable?
Easy to care for?
Does it encourage use of imagination?
Is it colorful?
Easy for child to handle?

Play Activities & Toys


Let them draw own conclusions

Show them how to solve problems

Maintain a positive attitude

Keep explanations simple & on level

Take time & attention

Take advantage of learning opportunities

Provide time for thinking

Provide only the help needed

Guiding Toddler Learning

Child needs to be physically and
intellectually ready

Don’t push but don’t hold back either

Fine motor skill activities will help child get ready to write

How do I know a toddler is ready to learn?

Three-year-old Scott’s father is proud of his son’s ability to recognize many
letters of the alphabet.
His father decides to teach Scott how to write the letters.
The lessons however usually end with Scott crying.
Explain why you think this is happening.

The Motivator

TODDLER
TALK
The Motivator
1. Which illustrates the attention span of a typical toddler?
a. As her mother changes 15-month-old Kim's diaper, Kim lies on the table and watches her mobile.

b. As her mother turns for a moment from helping 18-month-old Jamie get dressed, Jamie wanders off to the window.

c. 2 1/2 year old Barry quickly assembled the 15 piece puzzle quickly.

d. 2 year old LuLu is a happy child who loves to play with other children.
2. Which illustrates the reasoning ability of a typical three-year-old?

a. Andrea can see that the square block goes in the square shaped opening.

b. Annie keeps trying to put a shape in and finally succeeds.

c. Andy cannot choose between the red and blue shirts.

d. Angela has no reply when asked if she like bananas.

still use actions
songs and nursery rhymes
two-word
12
"What's this"
200
1,000 - 2,000
3 and 4 word
WHY?????
tense
number
How many words are in a typical two year old toddler's vocabulary?
Have you ever seen a child age 1 to 3 behave in a way you disapproved of?

What did the child do? How did the parent respond?

Did you think, “No child of mine will ever do that!”

The Motivator

EMOTIONAL DEVELPMENT of TODDLERS

What is it!?!


NEGATIVISM

General opposition to the world
Why?
Desire for independence
Frustration
Realization they are their own person




“Toddler’s Rules of Ownership”

ANGER
FEAR
JEALOUSY
LOVE, AFFECTION,
& EMPATHY
ANGER
build up leads to tantrums
release physically - kicking, holding breath
FEAR
~1 = separation anxiety
older toddlers = dark, etc
don't dismiss, be supportive
JEALOUSY
peaks around 18 months
cause: don't understand there is enough love and attention for everyone
LOVE, AFFECTION, and EMPATHY
-foundations are made for child to show love and affection later in life
-parent/caregiver is first love, then expands to siblings, others
-by two they can put themselves emotionally in someone else's shoes


How to promote and protect:
remember that toddler's believe what you say!!!
help them feel successful - master skills
avoid unnecessary correcting/adjusting of child's efforts
****Remember the importance of adequate sleep!
The Motivator
Think back to your very first friendship. If you don't remember, maybe you have been told about it.
Who was the friend?
How did the friendship begin?
Are you still friends with that person?
1. Which illustrates the emotional development of a toddler? Two-year-old Jason:
A. has an imaginary friend with whom he plays each day.
B. plays side by side with his play friend.
C. pretends to be a boat on the water.
D. is the only person in his world.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF TODDLERS
Socialization - the process of learning how to get along with others
It is a PROCESS!!!
learn first from family members and will apply those skills to other people and situations
Social Milestones
@ 1:
Plays alone but near others
Dislikes sharing
Desires approval
Fears some strangers
@2:
Engages in same play as others
Plays simple games w/others
Bosses other kids
Says "please" if prompted
@3:
Takes part briefly in group activities
Takes turns
Likes to help
Shows affecction
GOALS of SOCIALIZATION
A. Respect self, others, and things
B. Using good manners
C. Taking turns and sharing
D. Showing patience
E. Using words rather than physical acts to resolve conflict
F. Cooperating with others
Imaginary Friends...
normal or weird?

Gives child outlet for expressing negative feelings
Allows them to examine own thoughts through the friend "mirror"
Usually fade away on own
Parent's shouldn't be concerned until adolescence

How would you deal?
Avoid Ineffective Techniques:


SET LIMITS

Reasonable limits should:
Keep children from hurting themselves, others, property
Be few, clear, repeated often, and word positively
Be fair, age appropriate, and beneficial

Intentional or Unintentional???

Be consistent!!!

Set a good example/role model

Tell children what is expected

Use positive reinforcement – a response that encourages a particular behavior
be specific and notice ASAP
recognize small steps
help child take pride in actions
use encouragement that matches the child





What is your personal
opinion of each? What approach do you think you would use as a parent?


Guidance – using firmness and understanding to help children achieve self-discipline

Self – discipline – the ability to control one’s own behavior

Leads to development of a conscience – an inner sense of what is right

Guiding Behavior

Parenting Styles

1. Authoritarian
Parent tells child what to do,
child’s responsibility to do it
2. Democratic
Children have some independence
Have a choice within rules
3. Permissive
Children have wide freedom
May set their own rules

so many challenges ...
THE GOAL!!!!
How can we be effective at guiding a child's behavior?
Using Punishment Effectively

Negative Reinforcement – response to discourage, or prevent repetition of, a behavior

Warning for 1st offense
Natural consequences
Loss of privileges
Time-out


INTENTIONAL or UNINTENTIONAL?!?!?
BRIBING
SHAMING
SHOUTING
EXAGGERATING
THREATENING
PROMISING




***When kids get angry, encourage them to:
Use words
Speak calmly
Count to ten

Let's practice!
1. Which is an example of words that are likely to be used by a democratic parent?
A. Marilyn, you can stay out as late as you wish, no problem.
B. Mary, you'd better not stay out one minute past eleven o'clock.
C. Sarah, let's take a minute to discuss the time for your curfew tonight.
D. Terry, you are to be home promptly at eleven-thirty tonight.

INTENTIONAL
or
UNINTENTIONAL?

2. Which is an example of an appropriate method for guiding toddlers' behavior?
a. Sam put John in time out for two minutes.
b. Susan ignored her son and made him go to bed without supper.
c. Suzanna corrected George yesterday about running, but let him get away with running today.
d. Tiffany gave Tina an ice cream bar and then punished her.

Typical Toddler Inappropriate Behaviors
HOW TO DEAL
Contrariness:
- Tell in advance what's going to happen
- Use pretend games

Biting:
Look directly in child's eyes and
say "Do not bite"

Hitting:
Guide child toward choices
Use games to role play other ways to deal with conflict

In general, methods of dealing with misbehaviors:
@1 : Distract, Removal
@2: Same plus spoken restrictions/choices
@ 3: spoken restrictions with explanation/choices
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