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language centered methods
Transcript of language centered methods
human behavior are series of stimuli that trigger a series of corresponding responses.
learning as simple mechanism of stimulus, response, and reinforcement,
experience is the basis of all learning, all learning outcomes can be observed and measured in changes that occur in behavior.
no t make distinction between general learning and language learning.
language learning is just a process off mechanical habit formation through repetition.
practice and positive reinforcement.
habit formation takes places by the means of analogy rather thatn analysis, so is an inductive approach.
language learning is linear, incremental, additive process.
presented first in spoken form.
language introduced in planned dialogues with linguistic and cultural patterns.
culture and language Theoretical principles From structural linguistics and behavioral psychology, during 1950s.
Language as a system consisting of several hierarchically linked building blocks phonemes, phrases, clauses, and sentences, each with his own internal structure.
These subsystems are linearly connected in a structured, systematic, and rule/governed way.
structural linguistics view language as aural/oral. that emphasizing listening and speaking, speech was considered primary.
language as unique, with finite number of structual patterns. each structure can be analyzed, described, systematic and graded. can be learned an taught by taking a similar discrete path. Introduction
evolve and improve> change
more american, but complement with the British version
based on audiolingual method theoretical principles and classroom procedures. Theory of Language Teaching Audiolingual theory. It is because forming habits.
planned presentation of system of language with opportunities for repetition.
purpose is in the initial stage, using textbook serves as a model of proving samples of linguistic input (dialogues). In the larger stage, acts as skillful manipulator of questions, commands. and other cues in order to get correct responses from the learner.
Dialogues, primacy of speech.
strict sequence of language skills> listen, speak, read and write.
teacher/s major task is to drill the basic patterns, careful design exercises. avoid the possibility of making errors.
inductively learn grammatical structure Content specifications discrete items of grammatical and lexical forms of language that are presented to learners.
linguistic forms constitute the organizing principle for syllabus construction.
select the sequence of phonological, lexical and grammatical elements.
presented the language forms one by one to learners.
learner has to synthesize the discrete items of language in order to develop adequate knowledge of language
frequency and range.
easy /difficult, regular/irregular, useful/ less useful.
taking into account the context.
selection and gradation. Classroom Procedures Input modifications>
form based input
mechanical drills> automatic manipulative patterns aimed at habit formation.
PPP chapter 5 Language Centered Methods Theory of language Bloomfield (1942) "the command of a language is a matter of practice ... everything until it becomes a second nature" Brooks (1964) capitalizes on mind-s capacity to perceive identity of structure where there is difference in content and its quickness to learn by analogy. A Critical Assessment Systematic nature of language centered methods. all proficiency levels.
grammatical structures aided by coherently designed syllabus with preselected and presequenced items, and clearly delineated evaluation measures that focus on assessing the laerning of the discrete items of language