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Transcript of Thesis Presentation
Learning Experiences Teaching Approaches Student Experiences Learning Abilities Elements of the Lit Review Research questions
“Knowing how to learn, being inspired to continue learning and learning together are essential in today’s world.” (Friesen & Jardine, 2009, p. 35).
“Activities that are academically intense and foster positive emotions stand the best chance of engaging students.” (Shernoff, Csikszentmihalyi, Schneider, & Steele Shernoff, 2003, p. 173)
“The work students undertake also needs to be relevant, meaningful and authentic.”
(Willms, Friesen & Milton, 1009, p. 34). Limitations 1.There was no way to ensure that this class was equitable to all other classes offered during the year. The findings of this study may not be representative of other classes.
2.The student perceptions of the video-creation project was a qualitative measure and may have affected their willingness to participate in the interview process.
3.Incorrect, falsified answers or guessing. In addition to this, the interview process was only as effective as the students being interviewed allowed.
4.The issue of the dual role of researcher and teacher, and the degree to which the teacher could adhere strictly to her varied roles.
5.The possibility that the interviewees were swayed in their answers to both the engagement questionnaire and the interview questions by the affective relationship with the teacher.
6.The “halo effect” where the teacher’s own bias as to the positive nature of a student-centered approach to video creation might have swayed students’ perceptions of engagement, their willingness to complete the questionnaire, or their perception of the classroom experiences as described in the interviews.
7.The small sample size, limited the extent to which one could generalize the results and conclusions of the findings. Typical and Representative Sample Interpretive Methodology Data Results 1: Themes Data Results 2: Meta-themes Student Story Perspectives Differentiated Challenges
and Hurdles Differentiated Instructional
Roles Twenty-first Century Learning, Technology, and the Impact on Student Engagement Twenty-first Century Learning "students, teachers, and administrators [need] to go beyond a technical skill set toward a disposition of participatory citizenship” (Domine, 2009, p. 18)
“meaningful, collaborative activity... [in which] participants contribute differentially from their existing expertise and take over and transform for their own use the skills, values and dispositions that they find effective in the contributions of others” (Wells & Claxon, Learning for life in the 21st Century, 2002, p. 7)
“digital fluency” (Resnick, 2001a, p. 33)
“flexible workers” (Drage, 2009, p. 32)
“transforming passive consumers into active agents in the production of media”
(Rahn, 2003, para. 2). Media Literacy in the Classroom
“students who perceive teachers as creating a caring, well-structured learning environment in which expectations are high, clear, and fair are more likely to report engagement in school” (Klem & Connell, 2004, p. 270).
“despite their simultaneous development and logical linkages, the field of classroom-level and school-level environment have remained remarkably independent” (Fraser, 1986, p. 9).
A positive environment is “favourable to learning by being normed for respect, fairness, safety, and positive communication. Such an environment enhances the engagement of students at all grade levels,” (Marks, 2000, p. 174).
“the social, cultural, and cognitively rich experiences that these youth participate in [which] are largely taking place outside schools” (Geyer, 2009, p. 17) Supportive Classroom Climate
“Activities that are academically intense and foster positive emotions stand the best chance of engaging students. " (Shernoff et al., 2003, p. 173)
“To maximize student’s achievement... instructors should not allow them to remain passive while they are learning” (Smith, Sheppard, Johnson, & Johnson, 2005, p.11)
“digital wisdom is a twofold concept, referring both to wisdom arising from the use of digital technology to access cognitive power beyond our innate capacity and to wisdom in the prudent use of technology to enhance our capabilities” (Prensky, 2009, p.2) Student Engagement via Student Centeredness
“growth mindset” (Dweck, 2006, Mindset)
The zone between the “actual development as determined by independent problem solving” and the “potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygostky, 1934, translated 1978, p. 86).
“Traditional linear models of instruction are particularly
ill-suited for complex domains of knowledge” (Zydney, 2010, p. 360).
Teachers need to “promote student reflection using collaborative tools to reveal and clarify students’ conceptual understanding and thinking, planning, and creative processes” (ISTE, 2009, para. 4 ).
“Digital fluency will become a prerequisite for obtaining jobs, participating meaningfully in society and learning throughout a lifetime… But there is a real risk that only a small handful will be able to use the technologies fluently. In short, the ‘access gap’ will shrink, but a serious ‘fluency gap’ could remain. (Resnick, 2001b, p. 33) Twenty-first Century Learning and Teaching The core research question for this study was:
There were three sub-questions diverging from this main query. (All of these were in regards to the student-centered approach to video creation.) These sub-questions were as follows:
A) How did male and female perceptions vary?
B) How did the perceptions of high and low engagement students vary?
C) How did the perceptions of high and low achievement students vary? In the case of this research, a strand is defined as a statement that appears almost verbatim, in a number of interviews. Variations may occur in the wording, (for example, “I had fun”, “it was fun”, “this was fun”), but the concept remains identical in meaning. *NOTE: The transition from strands to themes was the first level of interpretation. The most similar phrases were organized in the same spreadsheet of the table, whereas the most dissimilar phrases were placed in other spreadsheets of the table. Like ideas were then ‘clumped’ according to underlying concepts inherent within the student phrases. Theme 1: Classroom Environment Theme 2: Student-Teacher Relationships within the Classroom Theme 3: Teacher Student Affect Theme 4: Peer Support and Class Interactions Theme 5: Peer Affect Theme 6: Graduated Structure for Independent Learning and Instruction Theme 7: Student Freedom and Choice Theme 8: Supported Student-Centered Learning Independent Inquiry Theme 9: Student-centric Coping and Thriving Methods Theme 10: Personal Challenges during the Video Project Theme 11: Positive Affective Impact of the Video Project “It was a big enough space for everybody to uh... get everything that they needed to be[sic] done” (Jean, January, 2012).
“You can go anywhere and you can just think about it and stuff. Like even if you can research something about it and like it’ll be better and stuff” (Tamara, January, 2012). “[Teaching doesn’t work] when teachers put something on the board and say teach yourself. They’re not going to say that but they say ‘Okay, do the next questions’ but you’ve got to teach yourself” (Allen, January, 2012).
“If they try to like, connect with their students, I think it’s better than just like, saying the work and then just letting them do it by themselves... they got to help them” (Tamara, January, 2012). “If the teacher is upbeat like you are then that makes it a lot more fun or if the teacher’s just kind of boring and explains it, it’s not really exciting” (Candice, January, 2012).
“[Teachers] have to like, interact with you, like be on a level like an understanding level and understand what you’re going through if you’re going through hard times and everything” (Jean, January, 2012). “[I got] engaged with the students and working with other kids too” (Mike, January, 2012).
“I’d rather be doing it with people than just all on my own” (Tamara, January, 2012). “If you have friends in the class, then you’ll enjoy it more” (Tamara, January, 2012).
“If your groups are chosen for you sometimes you end up with people who won’t work and that’s hard to do” (Britney, January, 2012). “Yeah, that [the smaller daily activities] helped a lot cause you get to learn how to do things” (Candice, January, 2012).
“You’d show us and then you’d make us do it again, so that we understood it” (Jean, January, 2012). “You gave us lots of freedom but you were still like, helped us to stay on task” (Tamara, January, 2012).
“[Enjoyed] not doing… what someone told me to do. Just make your own creation” (Mike, January, 2012). “Going into here… I had like no knowledge whatsoever and I was worried that I wouldn’t be able to do it” (Britney, January, 2012).
“If you need help, you’d still help, you wouldn’t say ‘oh go look at the example or something’. It’s kind of learning yourself, and yet if you need help, it’s fine” (Allen, January, 2012). “If I do like a chunk, a big chunk…then I’ll... take a little break for like five minutes and just take a rest so it’s not like you’re so bored by the end of it” (Britney, January, 2012).
“I would take pieces that I really liked and then I would work on that. And then I would go on the pieces that I didn’t like and then I would go back to pieces that I did like” (Candice, January, 2012). “I thought it was really hard. Cause you want it to be perfect but you can’t always get it to be perfect and then you would focus so hard and then you would forget which stuff... what you did” (Candice, January, 2012).
“[If you only had one choice...] It’d be different... I think it’d be easier ‘cause everyone’s doing a kinetic type so you just choose a song, do your own thing… Be easier, if you seen someone else doing words, you could ask them how it worked… you could go running around to see what they’re doing, put that into yours and create your own ideas (Allen, January, 2012). “[You] may not enjoy doing it while you’re doing it... but like the end you’re like ‘this is really cool, kind of thing’” (Tamara, January, 2012).
“If you are really focused and you’re really enjoying what you’re doing, you just have fun with it” (Jean, January, 2012). *NOTE: The photographs here are not those of the students involved in this study. All images have been labelled for reuse under Creative Commons licensing, and are available on the respective websites (see References). Final Thoughts and Thank Yous Low Confidence / High Challenges = Coach Developing Abilities / Skill-building = Mentor High Skills / Internal Motivation = Consultant http://ww2.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_taxonomy.htm Mindset Zone of Proximal Development Models of Instruction Collaboration and Reflection Digital Fluency Hank was a high academic student in the Advanced Placement stream who was enthusiastic about working with friends. In the final project, he challenged himself far beyond the project's requirements. Differentiation References: 1) focus and self control (p. 12)
2) perspective taking (p. 67)
3) communicating (p. 102)
4) making connections (p. 157)
5) critical thinking (p. 200)
6) taking on challenges (p. 248)
7) self-directed, engaged learning (p. 298)
Galinsky (2010), Mind in the Making
http://mindinthemaking.org/ “safe space”
Holley & Steiner, (2005) Three elements which have a significant effect on student motivation:
1) instructional design
3) choice as defined by “perceived autonomy, perceived competence, and/or task mastery goal orientation”
(Young, 2005, p. 37) By way of student focused self-reports and qualitative interviews, what was the perceived impact of a student-centered instructional approach to video creation on levels of student engagement? K. Goble, B.A. B. Ed.
University of Lethbridge "CCH New Media" segment, A Public Education, Spring, 2010 1) Social Engagement
2) Academic Engagement
3) Intellectual Engagement
Douglas Willms, Friesen and Milton, (2009) 1) Emotional
Appleton, Christenson & Furlong, (2008) Twenty-first Century Learning and Engagement Three Dimensions of Student Engagement: “Children who are engaged show sustained behavioural involvement in learning activities accompanied by positive emotional tone” (Skinner & Belmont, 1993, p. 572). sustained involvement learning activities positive emotion “As the world changes, the expectations placed
upon education shift to meet these changes”
(Friesen & Jardine, 2009, p. 4) Methodology 1) Qualitative interviews were designed in order to gather student perceptions of their own engagement within the New Media classroom, during the Video project. 2) The CES Scale (Trickett & Moos, 2002) was used to determined a typical and representative sample for the interviews. 3) The interviews provided a perspective into the nature of student engagement within one classroom using a student-centered approach to video creation. Involvement is “the extent to which students are attentive and interested in class activities, participate in discussions, and do additional work on their own.”
Affiliation is “the friendship students feel for each other, as expressed by getting to know each other, helping each other work with homework, and enjoying working together.”
Teacher Support is “the help and friendship the teacher shows toward students; how much the teacher talks openly with students, trusts them, and is interested in their ideas.” Involvement
Organization Innovation is “how much students contribute to planning classroom activities, and the extent to which the teacher uses new techniques and encourages creative thinking.”
Order and Organization is “the emphasis on students behaving in an orderly and polite manner and on the organization of assignments and activities” (Trickett & Moos, 2002, p. 1). Behavioral Cognitive Emotional Emotional Behavioral The Five Subscales of the CES Task Orientation Competition Rule Clarity Teacher Control Step 1: Administration of the CES to establish sample group.
Step 2: Interviews with the sample group.
Step 3: Analysis of the transcripts using standard qualitative interpretative procedures (Strauss & Corbin, 1990, 1998). Strands Themes Meta-themes The Nature of Student Engagement In the case of this research, saturation is defined as reaching a 75% benchmark, meaning six or more of the interviewees included this strand or theme within their interview responses. Strand: Saturation: Strands Themes Meta-themes An ‘open coding’ system of categories based on organizing the information into “chunks”.
(Rossman & Rallis, 1998, p. 17) "Hank" (43) "Jean" (46) Jean was an academic student with little experience with technology, who was highly involved in co-curricular activities. She was anxious until she developed a basic skillset, but went on to be one of the most successful students in the class. "Allen" (32) Allen was a highly academic, driven student in the Advanced Placement stream who found the open-ended projects in the New Media Class very frustrating. He preferred checklists to rubrics, and struggled to develop his own ideas for the video. "Britney" (44) Britney was an academic student who expressed no preference to open-ended projects (over specific outcome projects) but enjoyed one-to-one instruction and peer work. She worked collaboratively and went far beyond the minimum expectations of the video project. "Tamara" (38) Tamara was a gregarious and popular low academic student in the regular stream. She was easily distracted, and struggled to stay focused on long term projects, though she excelled in group situations. "Mike" (32) Mike was a challenging low academic student who had spent his entire Junior High experience in an alternate school, due to oppositional defiance and aggression. A careful approach had to be taken with instruction, but once he understood, Mike demonstrated tremendous focus, and created a highly creative, challenging project. Candice was a low academic student with an individualized program plan to address her learning challenges. She responded positively to one-on-one assistance, and peer-mentoring, and found the flexible classroom space worked well for her. "Candice" (45) "John" (39) John was a low academic student who was exceptionally shy and struggled with the most minor social interactions. He needed constant prompting and assistance to elicit minimal participation. Nonetheless, he demonstrated focus and drive during his daily assignments, and created a highly challenging final video project. Achieving Lift High Involvement = High Engagement