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Sample Course Page APES: Ch 12 Agriculture

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Valerie Head

on 17 June 2016

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Transcript of Sample Course Page APES: Ch 12 Agriculture

Ch 12 Agriculture

12-1: What is Food Security and Why Is It So Difficult to Attain?
12-2: How Is Food Produced?
12-3: What Environmental Problems Arise from Food Production?

Do you think there is enough food in the world to sufficiently feed everyone? Defend your answer.

Poor children (especially in Africa and Southeast Asia) that lack Vitamin A are likely to go blind and are susceptible to common infectious diseases.

Core Case Study-
Golden Rice: Grains of Hope?

Food Security vs. Food Insecurity

Food Insecurity vs. Food Security



Other issues with malnutrition...

Add this to your notes:
Kwashiorkors- a diet that is severely deficient in protein; large bellies in kids

Other issues with malnutrition...

Add this to your notes:
Marasmus- diet is low in calories and overall lack of nutrition; stunted growth, thin and emaciated bodies







High Input, Industrialized Agriculture



Most of our food is produced by...
Subsistence Agriculture
- many crops grown
Slash and Burn
Writing Assignment:
Use you study guide as a resource (12-2, 12-3, 12-6)

1. Describe animal feedlots (CAFOs), advantages and disadvantages to this method of farming, and possible solutions to more sustainable meat production.

2. Describe aquaculture, advantages and disadvantages, and possible solutions to a more sustainable method of fish production as a food source.

You have 20 minutes to complete this. Answer in explicit detail.
Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone
severe soil salinization
The Green Revolution- after WW2
Second Green Revolution- 1967
The 1st Gene Revolution

Cross Breeding and Artificial Selection to improve crops
The 2nd Gene Revolution
Not a GMO!
12-4: How Can We Protect Crops from Pests More Sustainably?
What is a pest?
1st Generation Pesticides
2nd Generation Pesticides
Broad Spectrum Pesticide
Narrow Spectrum Pesticide
Natural Predators
FIFRA- Is it working?
Pesticide Treadmill and Survival of the Fittest...
The survivors after an application of a pesticide are the ones to reproduce and pass on genes for pesticide resistance.

The farmer would then have to increase the strength of the pesticide each year in order to achieve similar results.

Keeps going and going...
12-6: How Can We Produce Food More Sustainably?
Soil Conservation
= methods used to reduce soil erosion and restore soil fertility
mostly by keeping the soil covered with vegetation

Farming Methods to Reduce Soil Erosion
1. Terracing
2. Contour Planting
3. Alley Cropping
4. Windbreaks
5. Strip Cropping
6. No Till Agriculture
Sustainable Aquaculture
Organic Farming
-genetically engineered rice by transferring DNA from daffodils and a soil bacterium into the rice so that it would contain more beta carotene (which the body can convert to Vitamin A)
-by eating 1 cup of the rice a day, it will prevent blindness and protect against diseases

Food insecurity is living with chronic hunger and malnutrition.

The root cause of it is poverty. Political corruption and war are also reasons.

Consequences of undernutrition (chronic hunger) include:

1. mental retardation
2. stunted growth
3. dying from infectious diseases

Too little Iron= anemia (fatigue, blood can effectively carry oxygen, prone to disease)

Too little Vitamin A= blindness, prone to disease

Too little Iodine: stunted growth, goiter, mental retardation

Famine (crop failures) leads to starvation, economic chaos, and social disruption

Occur from drought, war, or other catastrophic events
Results in mass migration to other areas or refugee camps

Consequences of Overnutrition
1. lower life expectancy
2. susceptibility to disease
3. lower productivity and life quality

produce grains
produce meat
produce seafood

2/3 of the world’s people survive primarily on these 3 grains.

This type of food specialization makes the world vulnerable should these crops
fail due to disease, environmental degradation, and climate change.

Produces 80% of our food
Uses heavy equipment
Requires large inputs of: financial capital, water, fossil fuels, fertilizers, and pesticides to grow monocultures (a single crop)
Main goal is to increase yield.

used in tropical, developing countries
grows cash crops like bananas, soybeans, sugarcanes, palm oil, etc
grown mostly for export to developed countries
these monocultures increase yield, but decrease biodiversity

Other types of Industrialized Ag:
Plantation Agriculture
-intended to make arid land more productive
-requires large inputs of water and energy to move water to these dry regions
-extensive and rapid development of greenhouse production on the south coast of Spain

more water efficient because plants are grown with roots in troughs of recycled water inside a greenhouse
Low Input Agriculture
uses mostly human labor and draft animals to produce only enough food for the family
The biodiversity reduces the chances of losing most or all of the year’s food supply to pests, bad weather, etc.
involves burning and clearing small plots of land, growing a variety of crops for a few years until the soil is depleted of nutrients, and then shift to another plot.

: increase food production by using high input agriculture

3 Requirements
1. Develop and plant monocultures of selectively bred or
genetically engineered varieties of crops like rice, wheat, and corn
2. Produce high yield by using a lot fertilizer, pesticides, and water
3. Increase the number of crops grown per year through multicropping

fast growing, dwarf varieties of rice and wheat have been introduced in India and China to produce more food on less land
protects biodiversity by saving large areas of forests, grasslands, wetlands, etc.

Grain production has tripled due to the two Green Revolutions.

Problems with traditional artificial selection to get better varieties of food
1. slow process
2. varieties remain useful for only 5-10 years before pests & diseases adapt

use genetic engineering
to improve varieties by adding, deleting,
or changing segments of DNA to produce
desirable traits or eliminate undesirable

Scientists can transfer genes between species
that don’t interbreed and results in
genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

Livestock is raised in rangelands/pastures or
feedlots (confined animal feeding operations -CAFOs).

CAFOs (feedlots)- livestock is fed with grain or fish in a
very small and crowded area

Meat production has increased fourfold between 1961 and 2007.
Demand for meat will increase as affluence increases.
This will require more grain imports for feed.

concentration of certain aquatic species suitable
for commercial harvesting in a given ocean area
or inland body of water

raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds
and underwater cages; aka fish farming

Why is aquaculture sometimes called the blue revolution?

It is the world’s fastest growing type of food production in which fish and shellfish are raised instead of hunted

Any species that interferes with human welfare
by competing with us for food, invading lawns and gardens,
destroying building materials, spreading disease, invading
ecosystems, or simply a nuisance

Some pests are natural predators that control
populations of more harmful pests.

Insecticides- kills insects
Herbicides- kill weeds
Fungicide- kills fungi
Rodenticide- kills rodents
natural chemicals borrowed from plants

-example: nicotine sulfate from tobacco

chemicals produced in a laboratory
-example: DDT

-toxic to many pest and non-pest species
-examples: chlorinated hydrocarbons like DDT and organophosphates like malathion and parathion

effective against only 1 or a small group of pests
Why is Rachel Carson an important figure in environmental history?

At the time, research on the environmental effects of pesticides was almost nonexistent. Rachel Carson brought attention to the harmful effects of DDT through her book, Silent Spring. Policy makers and the public embraced it, while chemical companies criticized it. Her work led to strict control and the banning of dangerous pesticides.

Only 10% of active ingredients in pesticides have been evaluated for health effects. The EPA says funding is an issue.

Alternatives to using pesticides:
1. Fool the pest by rotating crops or adjust planting times
2. Provide homes for pest enemies by the use of polyculture (many crops)
3. Implant genetic resistance by producing pest and disease resistant crops
4. Bring in natural enemies as a biological control
5. Use insect pheromones to lure pests into traps or to attract natural predators
6. Bring in hormones to control the development process and prevent reproduction
7. Scald them with hot water- this works for cotton, alfalfa, potatoes, and citrus

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program:

- reduce crop damage to an economically tolerable level in a sustainable way

- each crop and pests are evaluated as part of an ecological system, farmers then
develop a program that uses a variety of alternative controls (mentioned above)

Last Resort
- farmers use a small amount of narrow spectrum insecticide if needed
- requires expert knowledge on all crops and pests, slower, can be more
costly because the government provides subsidies to chemical pesticides

Add this to your study guide:
Eating Meat too little of meat can cause:

-protein deficiencies
-Vitamin A deficiencies
-Iron defeciencies

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