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Biology STAAR Review Reporting Category 5
Transcript of Biology STAAR Review Reporting Category 5
Interdependence within Environmental Systems
Change Population & Species Diversity
Flow of Matter & Energy
Environmental Change Impact
on Environmental Stability
Donna Sue Perkins
Punnett squares are graphic organizers used to predict the outcome of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses. Letters are used to represent alleles or versions of a trait and are called the genotype. Phenotypes are the physical appearance the alleles.
Ecological succession is the gradual change in the ecosystems over time.
Primary Succession includes beginning with abiotic factors such as rock only. Lichens (algae-fungi symbiotic relationship) chemically weather rock into soils with added physical weathering from climate precipitation. Soils then gradually allow vegetation growth, animal movement into area followed by growth of shrubs and tree until stable ecosystem is attained (climax community).
Secondary succession begins with soil and some biotic conditions until climax community is attained. Disturbances such as: flood, drought, tornado, hurricane or wildfire can disrupt an ecosystem and create an ecological succession.
A population is a single species in an ecosystem while a community is a group of different species interacting within a small environment.
Symbolic Relationships- relationship between living organisms with at least one organism receiving benefits.
) Commensalism (
) Mutualism (
Community Interactions- relationships between species
Predator-Prey relationships (
Competition (Two organism fighting for the same habitat requirements of: food, water, shelter or space)
Trophic levels - nutrition levels
(producers) - create own energy by photosynthesis (
energy to chemical energy) or chemosynthesis (chemical energy conversion)
Heterotrophs (consumers) -
break down dead or decaying organisms by secreting enzymes
consume dead and decaying matter
The Principles of Ecosystem Stability are:
1. Ecosystems dispose of waste and replenish nutrients by recycling all elements.
2. Ecosystems use sunlight as their source of energy.
3.Ecosystems maintain the size of a consumer population from overgrazing and other forms of overuse do not occur
4. Ecosystems maintain biodiversity.
Factors influencing ecosystem stability are biotic potential and environmental resistance (positive and negative factors of population growth -either abiotic or biotic, species diversity that is highly correlated with stability, as well as climate)
Stability of an ecosystem also needs to have a resistance to change such as:
Inertia - the resistance to change,
Resilience - the ability to recover from change,
Succession - the replacement of species by another.
Secondary ecological succession is the changing sequence of communities from the substitution of a community by a new one in a given place. For example, the ecological succession of the invasion of plants and animals in an abandoned crop or land.
Primary ecological succession is the changing sequence of communities from the first biological occupation of a place where previously there were no living beings. For example, the colonization and the following succession of communities on a bare rock.