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Copy of CAR ACCIDENTS

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by

Malak Aloufi

on 1 March 2014

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Transcript of Copy of CAR ACCIDENTS

Road Traffic Accidents
Epidemiology of RTAs in KSA

Definition
“An accident that occurred on a way or street
open to public traffic; resulted in one or more persons being killed or injured.
· Define road traffic accidents (RTAs)
· List slight and serious injuries resulting from RTAs
· List population at risk and risk factors in RTAs.
· Describe the epidemiology of RTA in KSA
· List the physical disabilities resulting from RTAs
· Describe the impact of RTAs on mental health of the victims
· List the socio-economic consequences of RTAs induced physical disabilities on the livelihood and well being of victims and their families
· Outline the preventive programs that should be followed to minimize or avoid RTAs.
Serious injuries

Slight injuries

Injuries
resulting from RTA

Most of car accidents are due to the use of mobile devices, which makes it the 3rd leading cause of accidents in Mexico only after driving under speeding or intoxicated
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in Saudi Arabia
1° China
2° India
3° Brazil & Russia
4° Egypt
5° Mexico
1- waste of money
2- public property destruction
3- poverty
4- financial burdens :
If someone died
References
Steps to be taken for Preventing Road Accidents
Outcomes

Slight Shock
slight Bruising
Slight Whiplash/sprains
Shallow cuts/lacerations/abrasions
Sprains and strains



Internal and external hemorrhage.
Paralysis.
Spinal truma.
brain injuries
Broken limb
Fractured skull/other
Internal injuries
Serious Burns
Saudi Arabia has one of the world’s highest records of accident on road safety.
For every 100.000 people there are 49 deaths caused by RTAs compared to Germany ( 6 deaths ) and Tunisia ( 34.5 deaths ) Saudi Arabia consider very high .
More than 85% of road accidents in Saudi Arabia are caused by the human .
Our economical losses due to traffic accidents reach about SR 21 billion every year.
The physical disabilities resulting from RTAs
The impact of RTAs on mental health of the victims
Psychologists have spent some years looking at varying kinds of psychological illness. From there, tests have been developed to look at symptoms to determine into which problem a patient may be suffering from. the widely validated illness are the following :

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD. It can be established as mild, moderate, severe or extreme and the correct degree of treatment can be administered.

The IES (Impact of Event Scale) estimates how the traumatic event has affected the patient. The test looks at the symptoms of intrusion and avoidance and measures them .

HADS stands for the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and looks at whether the patient suffers from either condition and rates the severity as mild, moderate, severe or extreme.

The socio-economic consequences of RTAs
Social effects :

1- effect on family relation :
victim's disabilities make's him a burden on his family
2- effect on work :
difficulties to return back to previous job
3- effect on victim's relation
4- effect on body image and health
Economic effects :
1.Most important method to bring down accidents is strict enforcement of speed limits.90 % of accidents can be avoided by strict enforcement of speed limits.
2.Heavy penalty should be imposed for those who cause accidents.
3.Lower age limit for two wheeler and Heavy Vehicle license should be raised to 21.


4.Safety awareness should begin from childhood, as it is difficult to impart awareness to a grown up a human. If safety awareness is imparted at childhood, safety will be a habit.
5.Children below a certain age should not be permitted to do cycling in busy roads and in roads where heavy vehicles are plying.
6.Roads should be widened wherever required and curvatures should be minimized.
7.Road Safety Day / Road Safety Week should be observed in all Schools, every year.


8.Always maintain safe distance with the vehicle in front.
9.Never use Mobile phone while walking, driving, riding on the road.
What are the main risk factors for RTAs ?

Risk factors influencing crash severity
Factors influencing exposure to risk
Risk factors influencing crash involvement
Risk factors influencing post-crash outcome of injuries
— economic factors such as level of economic development .
— demographic factors such as age.
— excessive speed .
— fatigue;
— being a young male;
— traveling in darkness;


— human tolerance factors;
— seat-belts and child restraints not used;

— presence of fire resulting from collision;
— leakage of hazardous materials;
— lack of appropriate care in hospital emergency
Epidemiology
is the study of the patterns, causes and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations
A Study in Thailand shows The Incidence of Disability Caused by RTAs in 2005
World Health Organization,Global status report on road safety (2013)
ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT, HANDBOOK, June, 2009
Road Traffic Accident Claims (Personal injury in practice). Text Book, by Mark Whalan (Jan 1, 2000)
Textbook : neurological disorders
http://duncangibbins.co.uk
http://www.who.int
http://saudiarabia.angloinfo.com
http://www.cdc.gov
http://en.wikipedia.org
Definition
Anxiety : 2,4,6,8,11,12,14
Depression 1,3,5,7,9,10,13
scoring 3,2,1,0 ( for item 7 & 10 the score is reversed
GRADING : 0-7 = NON-CASE 8-10 = bordering CASE
What is Saher?

Saher is an automated traffic control and management system which covers major cities in Saudi Arabia, and uses digital cameras network linked with the National Information Center of Ministry of Interior.
10.Saher
And how does it contribute in the prevention of road traffic accidents?
What is Saher ?
How does Saher contribute in the prevention of road traffic accidents?
-By improving the level of traffic safety

-upgrading the existing road network.

-enhance the public security by using the latest surveillance systems.

-ensure strict, accurate and constant implementation of traffic regulations.
Batool Abdullah
Hind Alshehri
Malak al Oufi
Rahaf al Tuwairqi
Rawabi al Gethami
Rawan al Malki
Danah al Harthi
sultanah al zahrani
sultanah al shareef
· Definition of RTA :
an accident that occurred on a way or street open to public traffic resulted in one or more person killed or injured.

· Injured resulting from RTA :

1-slight injury.

2-serious injury.

· The main risk factor of RTA:

1-factor influencing exposure to risk:

example:
demographic factor such as : age.

2-risk factor influencing crash involvement:

example:
fatigue.

3-rish factor influencing severity:

example:
human tolerance factor.

4-Risk factor influencing post crash outcome of injuries .

example:
leakage of hazardous materials.


· Saudi Arabia has one of the world’s highest record of accidents on road safety and more than 85% of road accident cause by human.

·
Psychological illness :
1-PTST.
2-IES
3-HADS.

·
The socio-economic consequences of RTA :
1-social effects .
Example: effect on victim’s relation.
2-Economic effects.
Example :waste of money .

·
Steps to prevent RTAs :
Example : children below a certain age should not be permitted to do cycling in buys roads.


SUMMARY
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