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Transcript of Reconstruction
took an oath of loyalty to the Union,
the state could form a new constitution banning slavery. Forgiveness -punishing the South
would only delay healing
the nation Amnesty - a pardon to all white Southerners
(except Confederate leaders) who
swore loyalty to the Union Citizenship -the right to vote for African Americans
who were educated or fought in the Union army. Segregation? -would not force Southern states
to give rights hed by white Americans to
African Americans Problems Facing
the Nation Should Southerners
be punished or forgiven? What rights should be
granted to freed
African Americans? How should the
Southern economy be
rebuilt without the use of slaves? How do you reintegrate the Southern States into the Union? 3.5 million slaves have just won their freedom--what do they do now? Radical
Republicans "Congress alone can do it...
Congress must create states
and declare whether they
are to be represented."
-- Thadeus Stevens "With malice toward none,
with charity for all."
--Lincoln Lincoln's plan was not
harsh enough --believed that Congress,
NOT the president, should control
Reconstruction policy. Hoped to guarantee civil liberties
for Sounthern slaves Congress voted to deny seats
to representatives from any state
reconstructed -- By 1864, the Union occupied Louisiana,
Arkansas, and Tennessee.
Should they be denied seats, too? The Wade-Davis Bill Much harsher than Lincoln's plan 1. a majority of white males in a
state had to swear loyalty
to the Union 2. A state constitutional convention
could be held, but only white males who swore
they had never taken up arms against
the Union could vote for delegates to this convention. 3. Former Confederates were denied
the right to hold public office. 4. The convention had to adopt a
new state constitution that abolished slavery. Lincoln refused to sign the bill into law. The Freedmen's Bureau Helped African Americans
make the transition to freedom. 1. distributed food and clothing
2. provided medical services that lowered the death rate
3. provided education Education --schools staffed mostly
--gave aid to new African American
"institutions of higher learning" Land --helped freed people aquire land
that had been abandoned by oweners
or seized by Union armies Racism towards the Bureau -- Many people thought the Freedmen's Bureau was a waste of time and money. Lincoln's Death and
President Johnson Johnson resented slave holders
and wished to punish them --Radicals thought Johnson
would create a harsh plan
they could accept
--he believed in giving states control over many decisions
-- he had no desire to help African Americans "Resoration" --most Southerners would be granted
amnesty once they swore and oath of loyalty
--high-ranking Confederate officials
and wealthy landowners could be pardoned
only by applying personally to the president African Americans --Johnson opposed equal rights
suffrage States' Right to Choose -- he believed that each Southern state should decide what to do about freed people "What men alone must manage the South." States had to ratify the 13th Amendment Radicals in Control Black Codes meant to control freed
men a women exploited African
American workers some fined/arrested African
Americans who did not work some banned African Americans
from owning farms Resistance to
Black Codes Freedmen's Bureau granted
the authority to prosecute people
who violated the rights of
African Americans Civil Rights Act of 1866 --granted full citizenship to African Americans
--overturned black codes
--overturned Dred Scott decision Johnson wanted to veto the
Freedmen's Bureau bill and Civil Rights Act,
but Congress overrode it. Fourtheenth and
Amendments The 14th Amendment -- ensured the Civil Rights Act would be upheld
-- granted full citizenship to all individuals born in the U.S. Johnson opposed the 14th Amendment Northerners worried about clashes
between whites and African Americans --riots in Memphis and New Orleans Election of 1868 --General U.S. Grant wins, running as
--The 1868 election was a vote on Reconstruction.
Voters supported the Republican approach. The 15th Amendment --prohibited the state and federal
governments from denying the right to vote
to any male citizen because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Would African Americans now be able to protect themselves?