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Transcript of GREGOR MENDEL
a.k.a, the Father of Genetics
by: FRANCIS CALINGO
In 1854, Mendel began his research on the transmission of hereditary traits from plant hybrids. Using pea plants for his experiments, as they were able to grow fast and had different distinct traits that were recognizable, he was able to come up
with a radical conclusion unheard of at that time.
At the age of 11, he accepted an invitation to a secondary school in Troppau. It would be a financial strain on his family, and would struggle to cope with it. However........
He was enrolled to a program at the Philosophical Institute of the University of Olmütz. He was academically distinguished, graduating in 1843.
He began studying as a monk in 1843. His name changed to Gregor from his birth name Johann after joining the Augustinian Order at the St. Thomas Monastery in Brno.
Cross-pollinating pure-bred pea plants with contrasting traits (e.g., tall smooth plant with short wrinkled plants), the first generation (F1) of heterozygous plants were produced. They shared the physical trait of one parent despite the different phenotype of the other parent. However, when he allowed the F1 generation to self-pollinate, the resulting F2 generation was groundbreaking. While three of the F2 generation plants shared the physical traits of one parent, one plant shared the physical trait of the other parent. This discovery led to the establishment of two important laws: the Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment.
WHAT THE HECK IS THE LAW OF SEGREGATION??
According to conventional thinking at that time, the traits of plant offsprings are simply a blend of their parent's traits.
At the monastery's expense, he went to the University of Vienna to continue his studies of sciences. While he had interests in astronomy, meteorology, and evolution, it wasn't until 1854 that he began his groundbreaking exploration of hereditary traits in plants.
He spent most of his childhood living in his family's farm. He worked as a gardener and studied beekeeping. Because of the financial and resource difficulties of the Mendel family, Gregor initially lacked quality education. But then....
He excelled in his studies, more than making up for the financial strain caused. He graduated from that school in 1840 with honors.
Born: July 22nd, 1822
Heinzendorf, Austria (now Hyncice, Czech Republic)
Family: Anton and Rosine (parents)
Veronika and Theresia (sisters)
Died: January 6th, 1884
Brno, Austria (now Czech Republic)
RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTATION, AND GROUNDBREAKING DISCOVERY
This law, also known as Mendel's 1st Law, establishes the existence of dominant and recessive genes. Dominant genes determines the physical traits of the organism, while recessive genes only determine the organism's genotype. Sometimes recessive genes determine the organism's physical trait only when paired with another recessive gene. The law states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes from a diploid cell separate during a process known as meiosis I so that each of the resulting haploid cells have a pair of homologous chromosomes. This also ensures that offspring will acquire one trait from each parent.
His groundbreaking discoveries made scientists reconsider what they knew about genetics. Gaining little recognition while he was still alive Mendel's research reshaped conventional thinking about hereditary traits and genes ,hence his nickname "The Father of Genetics." Thanks to him, we have a better understanding of how plant and human nature works....... and more questions on the Biology exam.
AFTER THE PEAS
In 1865, Mendel presented his findings to the Society of Natural Science in Brno. The following year, his paperwork, "Experiments of Plant Hybridization," was published the following year. Unfortunately, his work had limited recognition at best mostly due to the fact that his journals regarding his research remained obscured. Also, people did not believe that genetics was an important field in science. Added to that, Mendel's discoveries were overshadowed by the controversy caused by Charles Darwin's "Origin of Species" publication. Nevertheless as time went on, his final words, "My time will come." gradually became reality as more scientists in the 1900s discovered his works.
Oh, the Law of Independent Assortment? Also known as
"Mendel's 2nd Law," this principle states that alleles for a trait separate in a process known as Meiosis II. Then, these allele pairs are united at random in fertilization.