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Transcript of Education
Is it time for NEWCOMER SCHOOLS? The name Micronesia derives from the Greek mikros (μικρός), meaning small, and nesos (νσος), meaning island The native languages of the various Micronesian indigenous
peoples are classified under the Austronesian language family. The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia HTaTNove Area: 702 sq. km (about 270 sq. mi.) in four major island groups (Pohnpei, Chuuk, Yap, and Kosrae).
Nationality: Noun and adjective--Micronesian.
Ethnic groups: Nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups.
Religion: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 47%, others 3%.
Education: Literacy--89%. People Geograpy Language English and nine ethnic languages. Under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the United States provided the FSM with about $2 billion in grants and services between 1986 and 2001. The Compact's financial terms were renegotiated for the 20-year period 2004 through 2023, with the aim of encouraging sustainable development. The United States will provide almost $100 million in direct assistance every year until 2023, which includes the systematic reallocation of a portion of the direct aid to a jointly managed Trust Fund. Additional federal grants to the FSM total approximately $35 million annually. Assistance under the Amended Compact is distributed by grants in response to a transparent FSM budget process, focusing on the following six sectors: education, health, infrastructure, public sector capacity building, private sector development, and the environment. The U.S. Department of the Interior is responsible for monitoring and implementing the Amended Compact.
Economy Education http://www.fsmlaw.org/compact/index.htm The first school in Micronesia--and in the entire Pacific--was opened on Guam just a year after the arrival of the Jesuit missionaries in 1668. Protestant missionaries, who came to Micronesia in 1852, established schools of their own. At first they gathered people to instruct them in English. As they learned the local language, they began teaching children to read and write in their own island language. It was only during German rule in the early 1900s that the government began to take a hand in education. On Saipan the Germans opened the first public school. Public education began in earnest with the start of Japanese rule in 1914 The end of World War II saw a new flag flying over the islands, a new language, and a new philosophy of education. Only when US federal grants were extended to Micronesians in 1972 did the number of those attending college increase significantly. Kennedy Administration in the early 1960s came a call for improvement and expansion of education in the islands. Educational Attainment in the FSM for the Population Aged 25 and Over (2000 Census)
No school 12.3%
High school 32.3%
history of micronesia impact of education in Educational Challenges Facing FAS Students in Hawaii and Beyond
In recent years, the number of immigrants from the FAS nations to Hawaii, particularly families with school-aged children, has increased significantly. Corresponding increases in public school enrollment, as illustrated in Table 3, have also been documented. The numbers show a 43 increase of FAS students in Hawaii schools between 1997 and May 2002. For teachers and school administrators in Hawaii and elsewhere with high concentrations of FAS students, this influx brings with it new challenges unfamiliar languages, different value systems, and new cultures. Challenges faced by children from the FAS region are attributed to poor English language abilities, lack of familiarity with school system expectations, and a mismatch between their culture and the schools’ culture. To the degree that these challenges can be positively alleviated, achievement levels will improve for these students. Table 3. FAS Students in Hawaii Public Schools
Entity 1997 2002
FSM 515 583
RMI 630 1,088
ROP 47 28
Total 1,192 1,699 In school year (SY) 2001-2002, 13% of the 12,524 ESL student population, or 1,671 students, were from the FAS region. The concentration was found in the Honolulu and Central school districts, now known as complexes. According to the HIDOE (2002), the FAS ESL student population included 1,070 Marshallese, 342 Chuukese, 118 Kosraeans, 100 Pohnpeians, 25 Yapese, and 16 Palauans. FAS students not placed in the ESLL program were not included in this count.
In SY 2000-2001, the Honolulu school district/complex enrolled the largest number of students from the FAS: 377 from RMI, 520 from FSM, and 9 from ROP. Of these students, 30% were considered non-English proficient; 65%, limited English proficient, which means students have limited English speaking ability but are struggling to attain the academic language proficiency necessary to succeed in school; and 5%, fully-English proficient. The Honolulu school district/complex data also show that 83% of FAS students received free or reduced lunch; 28% were not in age-appropriate grade levels, a higher percentage than that of the remaining student population; 38% were failing one or more core content courses; and 9% were enrolled in special education (Hawaii Department of Education, 2001).
Hawaii Depatment of Eduction, 2001-2002 An estimated 12,215 aliens now reside in Hawaii via COFA. They moved here without
VISAs, in most cases to take advantage of free healthcare, public education, low-income
housing and other social services. http://www.ihshawaii.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/11.19.10-COFA.pdf 11-19-2010 In the last six years, the estimated native Hawaiian population in the state has decreased from 282,656 in 2000 to 274,766 in 2006.
Hawaii continued to have the largest number of native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders, totaling 275,000 out of a total Hawaii population of 1,285,498, followed by California with 260,000 and Washington state with 49,000.
From the 2001-02 school year to the 2006-07 school year, the number of Micronesian students increased by close to 58 percent to 3,337, according to the state Department of Education.
Is it time for Newcomer Schools?