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Transcript of Translation studies
1. Definition of
2. The term
4. Dynamic & formal eqivalence
5. Eugene Nida
6. Gideon Toury & Descriptive Translation Studies
7. Prescriptive & descriptive studies
8. Domestication & foreignization
9. Lawrence Venuti
was coined by the Amsterdam-based American scholar James S. Holmes in his paper
The Name and Nature of Translation Studies.
Historians of translation set the beginning at Cicero's remarks on how he used translation from Greek to Latin to improve his oratorical abilities.
The descriptive history of interpreters in Egypt provided by Herodotus several centuries earlier is typically not thought of as translation studies—presumably because it does not tell translators how to translate. In China, the discussion on how to translate originated with the translation of Buddhist sutras during the Han Dynasty.
Dynamic & formal equivalence
These terms of methods for translation were coined by Eugene Nida.
They have often been understood as fundamentally the same as sense-for-sense translation and word-for-word translation.
Translation studies is an academic interdiscipline dealing with the systematic study of the theory, description and application of translation, interpreting, and localization.
Aims at producing the same effect on the target reader as the source language text produced on its readers.
Nida (November 11, 1914 – August 25, 2011) was a linguist and a Bible translation scholar, who developed a principle of dynamic equivalence so that the Bible could be equally understood in different cultures.
In 1964, Eugene Nida published
Toward a Science of Translating
, a manual for Bible translation.
Aims at reflecting in the target text the composition of the source text.
1964 - Eugene Nida published
Toward a Science of Translating.
1965 - John C. Catford theorized translation from a linguistic perspective.
1960s and early 1970s - the Czech scholar Jiří Levý and the Slovak scholars Anton Popovič and František Miko worked on the stylists of literary translation.
James S. Holmes' paper
The Name and Nature of Translation Studies
at the Third International Congress of Applied Linguistics held in Copenhagen in 1972.
1995 - Gideon Toury and his
Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond.
Born in 1942, an Israeli translation scholar and professor of Poetics, Comparative Literature and Translation Studies at Tel Aviv University.
He is a pioneer of Descriptive Translation Studies and an author of the book
Descriptive Translation Studies and Beyond.
Descriptive Translation Studies
Avoid prescribing correct approaches or judging the value of translations, instead they focus on examining studies of various genres of translation and looking into translational behaviour in order to define its norms.
Stating the rules and telling you how you should translate.
You have to examine the translation done by the others and find the rules through these translations.
Domestication & foreignization
Domestication is a translation strategy used when the aim is to bring the target text closer to the culture of its readers.
According to Lawrence Venuti, the use of domestication as a translation strategy is typical of dominant cultures.
Foreignization is a strategy in which the translator preserves culture-specific items in the target text in a form close or identical to that of the source text. Its purpose is to retain the foreignness of the text and, as Venuti put it, "send the reader abroad".
Born in 1953, an American translation theorist, translation historian, and a translator from Italian, French, and Catalan.
His most famous work is
Translator's Invisibility: A History of Translation.
He strictly criticized the translators who in order to minimize the foreignness of the target text reduce the foreign cultural norms to target-language cultural values.
He believes that through domestication you don't get the wild, real thing but you force something to be in different, for example, cultural standards. He calls it
Translation studies has long been prescriptive which means that they were telling translators how to translate.