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Transcript of Riverine Landscapes
What are riverine landscapes?
A riverine landscape includes the ecosystems (all living things including plants and animals) in and around the area of a river. A riverine landscape may also be defined as a network of rivers and the surrounding land. Riverine landscapes are excellent for agricultural uses such as farming because the land is rich and fertile. They are valuable resources for growing food. Many riverine landscapes exist in Australia. Riverine landscapes exist because of the natural movement of water being forced down and around hills, knolls and mountains by gravity.
Features of a riverine landscape
Flood plain- A low-lying area regularly flooded by a river
Riverbed- The channel in which the river flows
Billabong- An arm of a river which forms a pool, only joining the river in times of flooding
Images of landforms in riverine landscapes
A Map of Riverine Landscapes around the world
Examples of Riverine Landscapes
The Ganges River
The Murray River
The Nile River
The Amazon River
A billabong forms when a river changes its course, leaving a section cut off from the new river. When the river floods every wet season, the water in the billabong flows again as it connects up with the main river. Because of this the water stays fresh and supports an abundance of life.
Flood plains are made by a meander eroding sideways as it travels downstream. When a river floods, it leaves behind layers of silt. These gradually build up to create the floor of the flood plain.
Billabong 2017, Questacon, accessed 13 March 2017, <https://www.questacon.edu.au/burarra-gathering/extra-information/billabong>.
Floodplain 2017, accessed 13 March 2017, <https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Floodplain>.
Nile 2017, WWF, accessed 12 March 2017, <http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/rivers/nile/>.
Egypt faces drinking water shortage because of Nile 2014, WWF, accessed 12 March 2017, <http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2014/03/egypt-nile-pollution-drinking-water-shortage.html#ixzz4b4eRWCx5>.
The Murray River: A River worth saving n.d., WWF, accessed 12 March 2017, <http://www.murrayriver.com.au/about-the-murray/the-murray-a-river-worth-saving/>.
The Nile River on the Map n.d., Map, Primary Homework Help, accessed 15 March 2017, <http://www.primaryhomeworkhelp.co.uk/egypt/nile.htm>.
Nile River n.d., Photograph, Youtube, accessed 15 March 2017, <https://www.google.com.au/search?q=nile+rive+photography&safe=active&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjjh8LH9s_SAhWLW7wKHTj5C68Q_AUIBigB&biw=1280&bih=683#safe=active&tbm=isch&q=nile+river+&*&imgrc=X8fWKdESmrPDTM:>.
Nile River n.d., Photograph, Britannica, accessed 15 March 2017, <https://www.google.com.au/search?q=nile+river+photography&safe=active&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjjh8LH9s_SAhWLW7wKHTj5C68Q_AUIBigB&biw=1280&bih=683#safe=active&tbm=isch&q=nile+river+&*&imgrc=2ljc9PMg9LgANM:>.
Landforms and Landscapes n.d., Oup, accessed 12 March 2017, <https://www.oup.com.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0020/58025/Oxford-Big-Ideas-Geography-8-ch1-Landforms-and-landscapes.pdf>.
How are flooplains and billabongs formed?
Photos of the Murray River
The Murray River
The Murray River is an example of a riverine landscape in Australia.
This is the Murray River
The current threats are climate change, water scarcity, drought and poor water. The rivers of the Murray-Darling Basin are dying. While average inflows decline due to climate change, extractions for irrigation remain at environmentally damaging levels. Climate modeling from recent years show that by 2060, the median annual rainfall over the Murray-Darling Basin would have declined by 5-15%. A 1% drop in rainfall in the region typically results in a decrease in inflows of 3-4%.
Towns along the River have grown into cities with little concern for effects on river water quality. Together with the pollution from storm water and sewage from these cities, some of the chemicals used, such as pesticides and herbicides on agricultural land inevitably wash into the streams. Nutrients in treated sewage and irrigation drainage water increase the frequency and intensity of algal blooms which contaminate drinking water supplies and increase the cost of water treatment. Mercury from old goldmines on the tributaries has contaminated river sediment and is now found in the tissue of the fish which eat the small animals living in the sediment. Pesticide residues also accumulate in the fatty tissue of these fish.
Ways to manage these problems would be by reducing energy usage, saving water and by using "greener" ways to produce energy, such as using solar panels. Also, the towns along the Murray river should make sure that their sewage does not come into the Murray river.
Due to heavy human extraction and high evaporation, the Nile river basin and its inhabitants are especially sensitive to climate change. Current water withdrawal for irrigation is so high, that despite its size, in dry periods, the river does not reach the sea.
Climate warming models provide diverging pictures of future river flows in the Nile from a 30% increase to a 78% decrease. In addition, saltwater intrusion into coastal freshwater resources (including aquifers) is likely to increase as a result of sea-level rise due to climate warming and would further reduce the availability of freshwater in the delta region.
Every once in a while, the level of pollution in the Nile rises, which requires halting the drinking water from stations that supply many areas of Egyptian cities because the Nile water no longer meets cleanliness standards.
Ways we can manage these problems are by, once again, saving the amount of energy we use and by using more efficient ways to make energy and by reducing the amount of pollution near the Nile.
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world and is an international example of a riverine landscape.
The Nile River
The Nile River on a map
Photos of the Nile River
Current threats to the Murray river
Current Threats to the Nile
By Charlotte and Trisha